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高考英语二轮模块专题复习课件-阅读理解大纲湖北省共419页文档_图文


模块 3 阅读理解
目录
专题一 人物传记类 专题二 故事类 专题三 新闻报道类 专题四 广告应用类 专题五 文化教育类 专题六 历史地理类 专题七 社会生活类 专题八 科普知识类

模块 3 阅读理解

模块 3 │考纲解读
考纲解读
“侧重提高阅读能力”在高中英语教学大纲中有明 确规定。纵观近几年的高考英语试题,我们不难看出, 阅读理解能力是高考考查的重点,自始至终占着主导地 位。阅读理解能力属于语言的领会技能。包括对书面语 言的识别、理解、推理、判断和快速记忆等几个方面。 不仅仅涉及到语音、语法、词汇这些语言因素,还涉及 到非语言因素,即:所学语言国家的社会和文化背景知 识、个人经历、生活常识、逻辑知识和语言修养等各方 面。

模块 3 │ 命题特点
命题特点
历年高考试题阅读理解命题特点和规律如下: 1.内容生活化 阅读理解所选的材料均来源于实际生活,涉及的内容也 是表现实际生活,强调语篇选材的真实性。 2.体裁多元化 阅读理解所选的语段包括记叙文、说明文、应用文和议 论文,保持了体裁的多样化特点。选材多源于英文报刊和网

模块 3 │ 命题特点
络媒体,包括名人轶事、历史传说、民间故事、寓言、 幽默小品、日常生活、新闻报道、社会背景、政治经 济、史地常识、科普文章等各个方面,并且具有鲜明 的英语语言文化特点和浓厚的时代气息。综合地反映 了政治、经济、文化和生活的各个方面,体现了“语 言是文化的载体”这一重要理念。

模块 3 │ 命题特点
3.信息密集化 近年来阅读理解继续保持了较大的阅读量,要求 考生准确而迅速地从特定语篇中有目的地获取信息。 阅读理解5个选篇都是以简约的语言负载高含量的信息, 看起来似乎不难,但是隐藏在表层结构下面较复杂的 信息,使试题具有较高的区分度。

模块 3 │ 命题特点
4.结构复杂化 阅读理解的5个选篇的语篇结构都具有较大的复杂 性。各篇或在时间顺序上,或在空间顺序上,或在逻辑 推理上,均使用了较高级的组篇手段,这种来源于真实 生活的作品同考生平时在课本中接受的清楚明白的语段 是很不一样的。

模块 3 │ 命题特点
5.用词高级化 高考对词汇运用的要求越来越高,活用词比比皆 是。凡是能利用构词法知识判断出词性和词义的都不 视为生词,不再给出汉语注释;纯超纲词汇也屡有出 现;一词多义、熟词生义现象更是频繁出现。

模块 3 │ 命题特点
6.设题创新化 高考阅读理解题在保持传统命题的基础上,也在不 断地借鉴和创新大学英语的命题方式。结构型命题即是 近两年高考阅读试题中全新的命题形式。这种命题侧重 于对文章篇章结构和修辞(写作)手法以及例证、引用的 功能的考查,是一种凌驾于信息阅读之上的更高难度的 测试手段,较好地体现了“稳中有变,变中求新”的基 本命题思路。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
题型分类
阅读理解的能力要求主要包括如下几方面: (1)读材料的主旨和大意,以及用以说明主旨和大意的 事实和细节(包括根据上下文推断生词的词义); (2)既理解具体的事实,也理解抽象的概念; (3)既理解字面的意思,也理解深层的含义,包括作者 的态度,意图等; (4)既理解某句,某段的含义,也理解全篇的逻辑关系, 并据此进行推理和判断; (5)既能根据所提供的信息去理解,也能结合中学生应 有的常识去理解。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
根据这五项要求,可将阅读理解的选择题归纳为以下 几种题型:
一、细节理解型 文章主题和中心思想的阐述往往需要大量细节信息的 支持,这些细节对于理解全文内容至关重要,同时也是归 纳和概括文章中心思想的基础。命题人往往会要求考生根 据不同的要求阅读文章,以获得某些特定的信息,或准确 地寻求所需的细节,并对细节进行直接或间接辨认和理解。 文章细节的理解可以细化为:(1)一一对应型。答案与题 目在表达形式和意义上直接吻合,一一对应,一目了然。 属于浅层次的阅读试题,分数比例极少。(2)语言转述型。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
这是一类间接事实细节题,答案与题目在意义上充分运用 了词义之间的转述关系,即正确选项是原文有关词语和句 子的另类表达。属于中档难度题,分数比例较大。(3)语 意理解型。这是一类深层事实细节理解题,答案与题目之 间存在着一定的逻辑联系,这种联系需要建立在事实的基 础上通过上、下文来进行判断、分析、归纳和整合,才能 得出正确答案。属于较高难度的事实细节题,分数比例很 大。(4)是非辨别型。这是一类综合事实细节题,出题形 式常常是“三正一误”(三项正确,只有一项不符合原文 内容)或“三误一正”(三项错误,只有一项符合原文内

模块 3 │ 题型分类
容)。 (5)事实排序型。这是一类运用多项事实进行排序 的事实细节题,要求根据动作发生的先后顺序、时间顺序 或者句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生、发展的正确顺 序。
A.细节理解题主要设问的方式有: (1) Which of the following statements is True (Not True)? (2) Which of the questions has not been mentioned (discussed) in the passage? (3) What is the reason that…?

模块 3 │ 题型分类
(4) What do we know about…? (5) How did the people know the couple’s problem? (6) Why was the bike so important to the couple?
B.细节理解题主要的答题策略有: (1)细心审题,直接就题找答案。解答此类试题时,不 必通篇细看原文,而应采取“带着问题找答案”的方法, 先从问题中抓住关键性词语(题眼),然后以此为线索,运 用略读及查读的技巧快速在文章中寻找与此问题相关的: 段落、语句,仔细品味,对照比较,确定答案。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
(2)变通理解,间接转述找答案。细节理解题通 常采用词语和句型转换的形式来取代原文中的表述, 命题者在出这类题时惯用“偷梁换柱、张冠李戴” 的手法来迷惑考生,即对原句细微处做改动,截取 原文词语或结构进行改造,因果倒置,把A的观点说 成B的观点等。所以正确理解题干和信息句的意义是 关键。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
(3)多点归纳,综合事实找答案。细节理解题有时 考查的并不是单一的信息,而是多处信息的整合。解答 此类“综合”信息细节题时,一定要全面捕捉相关信息, 进行综合分析、归纳,切忌根据“一面之词”草率地作 出结论。
此外,在答题过程中,要学会分析干扰选项的特点: ①是原文信息,但与题目要求不符;②符合常识,但不 符合原文内容;③. 与原文情节极为相似,只是在程度 上有些变动;④选项中所提供的信息部分正确,部分错 误;⑤在意思上与原文大相径庭甚至完全相反。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
例1 [2019·山东] A Christopher Thomas,27,was a writer by night and a teacher by day when he noticed he was always tired and was losing weight fast. Diagnosed with diabetes(糖尿病),Thomas would need to inject himself with insulin(胰岛素) three times a day for the rest of his life or risk nerve damage,blindness and even death. And if that weren’t bad enough,he had no health insurance.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
After a month of feeling upset,Thomas decided he’d better find a way to fight back.He left Canton,Michigan for New York, got a job waiting tables,nicknamed himself the Diabetic Rockstar,and created diabeticrockstar,a free online community for diabetics and their loved ones—a place where over 1,100 people share personal stories,information and resources.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
Jason Swencki’s son,Kody,was diagnosed with diabetes at six.Father and son visit the online children’s forums(论坛)together most evenings. “Kody gets so excited,writing to kids from all over,”says Swencki,one of the site’s volunteers. “They know what he’s going through,so he doesn’t feel alone.”
Kody is anything but alone:Diabetes is now the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, with 24 million diagnosed cases. And more people are being diagnosed at younger ages.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
These days,Thomas’s main focus is his charity(慈善机构),Fight It,which provides medicines and supplies to people—225 to date — who can’t afford a diabetic’s huge expenses. Fight?it.org has raised about $23,000—in products and in cash.In May,Thomas will hold the first annual Diabetic Rockstar Festival in the Caribbean.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
Even with a staff of 22 volunteers,Thomas often devotes up to 50 hours a week to his cause, while still doing his full?time job waiting tables.“Of the diabetes charities out there, most are putting money into finding a cure,”says Bentley Gubar,one of Rockstar’s original members.“But Christopher is the only person I know saying people need help now.”

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )1.Which of the following is true of Christopher Thomas?
A.He needs to go to the doctor every day. B.He studies the leading cause of diabetes. C.He has a positive attitude to this disease. D.He encourages diabetics by writing articles. 【解析】 C 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句“After a month of…back.”以及下文的建立网站,搞慈善事业,每 周工作50小时等内容可以看出:Thomas对于自己的疾病采取 了积极的态度。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )2.Diabeitcrockstar. com was created for________.
A.diabetics to communicate B.volunteers to find jobs C.children to amuse themselves D.rock stars to share resources 【解析】 A 细节理解题。根据a free online community for diabetics and their loved ones—a place where over 1,100 people share personal stories, information, and resources可知A项正确。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )3.According to the text, Kody________. A.feel lonely because of his illness B.benefits from diabeticrockstar. com C.helps create the online kid’s forums D.writes children’s stories online 【解析】 B 细节理解题。根据Father and son visit the online children’s forums(论坛) together most evenings. “Kody gets so excited, writing to kids from all over,” says Swencki, one of the site’s volunteers. “They know what he’s going through, so he doesn’t feel alone. ” 可知B项正确。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )4.What can we learn about Fight It? A.It helps the diabetics in financial
difficulties. B.It organizes parties for volunteer once a
year. C.It offers less expensive medicine to
diabetics. D.It owns a well?known medical website.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
【解析】 A 细节理解题。根据Fight It, which provides medicines and supplies to people—225 to date—who can’t afford a diabetic’s huge expenses. Fight?it. org has raised about $23,000—in products and in cash. 可知A项正确。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
二、主旨大意型 每篇文章都会有一个主旨要义。主旨要义型题范围 一般包括:短文标题、主题大意或段落大意等。 此题型要求考生在理解文章后归纳文章要点,概括中心 思想。考生需要分析文章的篇章结构,抓住文章的开头 或结尾,从而找出能概括文章的主题句。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
主题句的特点:(1)语言特点:归纳性、概括性、抽 象性;(2)位置特点:主题句常出现在“总结性”语言的 “信号词”后,如:in summary, in a word, as a result, finally, in short, in conclusion和in brief等;主题句常出现在“转移话题式”语言的“信号 词”后,如:but, however, nevertheless,hence等。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
标题的语言特点:独特新颖、概括性强、短小精炼。 标题是文章中心思想的精练表达,多为一个名词词组, 短小明了,涵盖性强。做这类题目时,要在阅读全文的 基础上,把握好层次关系。注意选项的归纳范围要恰如 其分,干扰项往往是局部信息,是某一小节或文章里的 某一句。所以我们在解题时要反复推敲,把概括范围过 窄或过宽的选项过滤掉。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
干扰项的命题特点:①以偏概全。干扰项只阐述 了文章的一部分内容,也就是文章的局部信息。 ②断 章取义。干扰项常常以文章中的个别信息或个别字眼 作为选项的设置内容,或者以次要的事实或细节冒充 全文的主要观点。③主题扩大。干扰项所归纳、概括 的范围过大,超过文章实际所讨论的内容。④张冠李 戴。命题者有意地把属于A的特征放在B的身上,构成 一个干扰项。考生不注意的情况下,会造成错选答案。 ⑤无中生有或似是而非。有的干扰项中的关键词语好 像在文章中谈到了,但认真分析之后你会发现这类干 扰项的内容与文章的内容毫无联系。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
A.主旨大意主要的设题方式有两类:文章的中心思 想和文章标题的选择。
(1)Which of the following best gives the main idea of this newspaper article?
(2)The best headline for this newspaper article is ________.
(3)What is the topic of the text? (4)The text is mainly about ________. (5)What’s the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph? (6)What would be the best title for the text?

模块 3 │ 题型分类
B.主旨大意主要的解题策略有: (1) 抓住主题句,锁定文章主旨。找准主题句是关 键。主题句通常在文章开头,而主题句有可能在一段的开 头,也有可能在中间或末尾。在很多情况下,主题句如果 在段首,其后可能有for example,first,second等信 息词。主题句如果在段末,其前可能有above all,all in all等信息词。利用这些信息词,可帮助你迅速找到主 题句。一般来说,文章前三句所提供的信息能够让读者了 解其大致内容,而读懂每段的第一句话则有助于掌握本段 的主要内容。这样做的目的不仅在于可以迅速地把握全段 的大意,更重要的是,在时间紧迫的情况下,可以对一段 话进行缩读、略读和扫读。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
(2)抓住段落大意,概括中心思想。寻找整篇文章的 中心思想是建立在寻找具体段落中心的基础上的。各段落 中心的整体归纳便是文章的中心思想。不能以偏概全,也 不能在概括时过于宽泛,要恰如其分。
(3) 抓住主线和关键,归纳文章中心。分析的方法 是:先弄清该段落主要讲了哪几方面的内容,这些内容在 逻辑上有什么联系,然后加以归纳形成主题。了解文章的 结构,把握住全篇的文脉,即句与句、段与段之间的逻辑 关系。对这种能力的考查一般反映在文章的中心内容、文 中某一段的大意或指代关系的题目中。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
例1 [2019·湖南C篇—节选自文章第一段和最后 一段]
People from East Asia tend to have more difficulty than those from Europe in distinguishing facial expressions—and a new report published online in Current Biology explains why. ________________________________________________

模块 3 │ 题型分类
In short, the data show that facial expressions are not universal signals of human emotion. From here on, examining how cultural factors have diversified these basic social skills will help our understanding of human emotion. Otherwise, when it comes to communicating emotions across cultures, Easterners and Westerners will find themselves lost in translation.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )1.What can be the best title for the passage?
A.The Eye as the Window to the Soul B.Cultural Differences in Reading Emotions C.Effective Methods to Develop Social
Skills D.How to Increase Cross?cultural
Understanding

模块 3 │ 题型分类
【解析】 B 最佳标题题。文章首先指出科学研究的 最新发现:东方人比西方人更难读懂人的面部表情。之 后更具体地介绍研究的结构及其研究过程,最后得出结 论:文化差异丰富了理解情感的基本社会技巧,即:不 同的文化背景使人理解他人情感的方式也不尽相同。由 此判断最佳标题应为B。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
例2 [2019·全国卷II B篇—节选自文章第一段和 第二段]
When you’re lying on the white sands of the Mexican Riviera, the stresses(压力) of the world seem a million miles away. Hey, stop! This is no vacation—you have to finish something!

模块 3 │ 题型分类
Here lies the problem for travel writer and food critic(评论家) Edie Jarolim,“I always loved traveling and always liked to eat, but it never occurred to me that I could make money doing both of those things,” Jarolim said. Now you can read her travel advice everywhere—in Arts and Antiques, in Brides, or in one of her books, The Complete Idiot’s Travel Guide in Mexico’s Beach Resorts.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )1.What would be the best title for the text?
A.Adventures in Travel Writing B.Working as a Food Critic C.Travel Guides on the Market D.Vacationing for a Living

模块 3 │ 题型分类
【解析】 D 最佳标题题。本文描述了一个很普遍的 谋生问题:谋生在Jarolim身上既是度假休闲,又是写作 和评论的源泉。提示在文章第一段结尾句 “Hey, stop! This is no vacation—you have to finish something!”和第二段中 “but it never occurred to me that I could make money doing both of those things,”说明了没有想到“度假也可以谋生”的欣喜 之情。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
例3 [2019·辽宁卷C篇—节选自文章第一段] Too much TV?watching can harm children’s ability to learn and even reduce their chances of getting a college degree, new studies suggest in the latest effort to examine the effects of television on children. ( )1.What would be the best title for this text?
A.Computers or Television B.Effects of Television on Children C.Studies on TV and College Education D.Television and Children’s Learning Habits

模块 3 │ 题型分类
【解析】 B 最佳标题题。通读全文可知,文章 主要通过两项研究分析了儿童看电视所造成的影响。 文章第一段第一句话是主题句,所以B项作为标题是最 佳的。

模块 3 │ 题型分类
例4 [2019·江西A篇—节选自文章最后两段] Suddenly, out of the corner of his eyes, he spotted a small dam used by Mr. Nelson to irrigate his vegetable garden. Off his bike and into the cool water he lived, disappearing below the surface and away from the savage insects. After holding his breath for as long as he could, Andy came up for air and noticed the bees had gone. Dragging himself out of the dam, he struggled up the hilly slope and rang the doorbell. Mrs. Nelson took him inside and rang his mother.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
“You’ll really need that fishing break to help you recover,” laughed his mother with relief. “Thank goodness you didn’t panic!” But Andy did not hear her. He was dreaming once again of the fish he would catch tomorrow.
( )1.Which of the following can best describe Andy’s escape from the bees?
A.No pains, no gains. B.Once bitten, twice shy. C.Where there is a will, there is a way. D.In time of danger, one’s mind works fast.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
【解析】 D 主旨大意题。本文讲述了主人公Andy 在上学途中遭遇蜂群攻击, 急中生智, 躲入水中避险 成功的故事。根据最后一段第二句Andy妈妈的话 “Thank goodness you didn’t panic(谢天谢地你没 有慌神)”可知,情急之下Andy仍然成功想到办法脱险, 再综合A、B、C、D四个选项的意思, 可以判断出选D项。

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例5 [2019·年浙江卷C篇—节选自文章最后一段] We often don’t remember things as well when we’re trying to manage several details at the same time. Without mental focus, we may not pay enough attention to new information coming in, so it never makes it into our memory stores. That is one of the main reasons we forget people’s names—even sometimes right after they have introduced themselves. Multitasking

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can also affect our relationships. If someone checks their e?mail while on the phone with a friend, they may come off as absent?minded or disinterested. It can also cause that person to miss or overlook key information being passed on to them.

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( )1.What is the main idea of the passage? A.Multitasking has become a way of life. B.Multitasking often leads to efficiency decline. C.Multitasking exercises need to be improved. D.Multitasking enables people to remember things better.

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【解析】 B 主旨大意题。本文是一篇科普文章, 讨论“多重任务处理(multitasking)”即“一心多用” 导致工作效率低下的科学原理。根据文章第一段的最 后两行,可知本文主要讲的是同时做多个项目会降低 工作效率。

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三、词义猜测型 历年高考都把猜测词义作为考生应该掌握的一项阅读 技能列入试题,词义推断可以是一个单词的意义推断,也 可以是一个短语或句子的意义推断,既可以是生词意义, 也可以是熟词新意;还可以是对替代词所替代内容的判断。 在阅读理解题中,所考查的词或短语的意义往往不停留在 字面上,要根据短文提供的语境,通过阅读上下文,根据 已知的信息或常识来推测尚不熟悉的词或词组的含义。

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A.词义猜测主要的设题方式有: (1)The underlined words “took off ” in paragraph 2 mean “________”. (2)What does the underlined word “them” in the last paragraph refer to? (3)The underlined sentence in the second paragraph implies that________. (4)Which of the definitions is closest in meaning to the word “exotic” in the third paragraph?

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(5)The underlined phrase “ turn his back on” (paragraph 6) most probably mean________.
(6)By saying “ We need them yesterday ”(paragraph 7),Stover means that snakelike robots________.
B.词义猜测主要的解题策略有: (1)依据标点符号猜测词义。标点符号是词义猜测的最 直接,最简单的信号词。比如,破折号、冒号常常起解释 说明的功能,引号和括号有时也起到相同的作用。

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(2)依据反义词和对比关系猜测词义。运用对比手 法描述事物或现象是文章写作的一种常用的修辞手法。 在这种修辞手段下,作者常借用一些信号词来提供相 反信息,从而表明一个词与前面的另一个词互为反义。 常用的信号词有:but/yet/however/nevertheless; while/whereas; otherwise/or else; unlike /instead/rather than; by contrast/compared to; on the contrary/on the other hand 等。

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(3)依据下定义,作解释猜测词义。在说明文、科 技文中运用下定义或解释概念的方法来定义或诠释某 一名词或概念是文章写作的又一特点。在写作方法上 常采用先总后分(即先定义后解释)或先分后总(即先说 明后结论)的叙述方式。常用的定义信号词有: be defined as/be termed(被定义为) ,be called (被 称为), mean/refer to/be(意指,是)。

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(4)依据逻辑推理猜测词义。运用逻辑推理猜测词义 是使用最广考查最多也最易失分的猜词方式。要求考生 具备整合分散、复杂信息的能力,充分利用上下文中相 关的词汇并结合具体的语境,从形式和内容上把握语言 之间的内在联系,理顺语言之间的逻辑关系,进而达到 猜词的目的。常见的逻辑关系有:因果关系,同位关系, 对比关系,转折关系等。此外,考生还可以依据词性变 化和词义变化(词义引申 )来猜测词义。

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例1 Morning, noon, and night, her tongue was

endlessly going, so that he was forced to escape

to the outside of the house—the only side which,

in truth, belongs to a henpecked husband.

( )The underlined words “ henpecked_

husband.” probably mean a man who________.

A.likes hunting

B.is afraid of hens

C.loves his wife D.is afraid of his wife

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【解析】 D 依据标点符号猜测词义。破折号 “ —— ” 起进一步解释说明的作用。由句前信息 “他为逃避妻子的唠叨而逃到屋外”可知“他是一 个怕老婆的人”,因此选择 D 项。

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例2 They were no longer passively_waiting_for the bell, but actively took part in the lesson.
( )The underlined words “passively _waiting_for ” probably mean________.
A.longing for a phone call B.hoping to have a bell C.expecting the end of the class D.wanting to speak in class

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【解析】 C 依据反义词和对比关系猜测词义。 but 分句 actively took part in the lesson(学 生们积极上课) 与前句 They were no longer passively waiting for the bell 形成鲜明的对比, 不难猜出答案 C (学生们不再被动地等待下课)是正 确选项。

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例3 Early human beings used very fragile houses and boats. Often strong winds would tear roofs from houses or cause high waves that endangered travelers. People’s food suppliers were similarly vulnerable.
( )The underlined word “vulnerable” means________.
A.impossible to make sure of B.likely to be protected C.easy to damage D.difficult to find

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【解析】 C 运用逻辑上的类比关系猜测词义。 在 这 段 描 写 中 , 作 者 把 houses , boats 和 food suppliers 放在一起比,说明它们的共同特点 easy to damage,故选 C 项。

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例4 I had first known she was wrong, that her anxiety had clouded_her_judgment.
( )问题:The underlined words “ clouded _her_judgment” probably mean ________.
A.made her less trustful toward the doctor B.put her in control of her own feelings C.made her less able to think clearly D.put her in a dangerous situation

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【解析】 B 运用名词动化猜测词义。此处 cloud 名词动化为“把……遮盖住,使……模糊不 清”,对于思维而言,就是“不能清楚地思考”, 因此选 B 项。

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例5 (2019·江西D篇—节选自文章第三段) (Paragraph 3)However, what do we do with the time we have saved? Certainly not relax, or so it seems. We are so accustomed to constant activity that we find it difficult to sit and do nothing, or even just one thing at a time. Perhaps the_days are long gone when we might listen quietly to a story on the radio, letting imagination take us into another world.

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( )1.What does “the days” in Paragraph 3 refer to?
A.Imaginary life. B.Simple life in the past. C.Times of inventions. D.Time for constant activity.

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【解析】 B 词义猜测题。本题是根据前后逻辑推 理猜测词义。原句意义:也许, 我们静静聆听广播里 的故事节目, 任想象插上翅膀肆意翱翔的日子, 已经 一去不复返了。根据前后句可得知, 文章重点是说高 速生活和简单生活的对比。故B项是对原文的正确解读。 而A选项的理解有偏差, 重点转移了。

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四、推理判断型 推理判断题属于高层次阅读理解题。这种题型包括 判断题和推理题。这两类题常常相互依存,推理是为了 得出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。 做好该题型要从整体上把握语篇内容,在语篇的表面意 义与隐含意义、已知信息与未知信息间架起桥梁,透过 字里行间,去体会作者的“弦外之音”。推理判断题常 常可以分为如下几类:(1)细节推断。如时间、地点、 人物关系等;(2)逻辑推断。根据已知的结果推断导致 结果产生的可能原因; (3)目的、意图、态度推断。

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根据文章的论述,推断作者的写作目的以及作者的情感态 度;(4)预测想象推断。文章没有明确说明,要求根据语 篇对文章可能涉及的内容进行预测判断。
A推理判断主要的设题方式有: (1)It can be inferred from the passage (or the last paragraph) that… (2)It can be learned from the passage (or the last paragraph) that…

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(3)It can be concluded from the passage (or the last paragraph) that…
(4)It implies that… (5)Where would you most probably find this passage? (6)What would the author most likely continue to talk about in the next paragraph(s)?

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B推理判断主要的解题策略有: (1)根据不同文体,推断目的意图。高考阅读试题涉 及到各类文章,而以议论文为主,文章的主题句、核心 句往往会直接或间接地表明作者的态度立场;也有说明 文、叙述文。前者因为其体裁的客观性,作者的态度也 往往采取中立。而后者因为其文章观点往往不直接提出, 而且作者写作时也常带有某种倾向性,所以,阅读时要 善于根据文章的文体来学会推断作者的情感态度和目的。

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(2)根据用词风格,推断情感态度。一篇好的文 章,其用词风格常常直接流露或蕴含作者的内心世界 和情感态度。所以阅读时要善于捕捉表达或暗示情感 态度的词句或短语,捕捉那些烘托气氛、渲染情感的 词句,进而很好地洞察作者的思想倾向,是支持、反 对抑或中立?对于选项而言,要分清选项中的褒义词、 中性词和贬义词,以此对照全文。如:1)表示褒义的

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词语:positive赞成的;supporting支持的;praising赞 扬 的 ; optimistic 乐 观 的 ; admiring 羡 慕 的 ; enthusiastic 热 情 的 等 。 2) 表 示 中 性 的 词 语 : uninterested无兴趣的,不感兴趣的; neutral中立的; impersonal 不 带 个 人 感 情 的 ; subjective 主 观 的 ; objective客观的等。3)表示贬义的词语:disgusted感到 恶心的,厌恶的;critical批评的;negative 否定的, 反对的;suspicious怀疑的;tolerant容忍的,忍让的; worried 担忧的等。

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(3)根据写作思路,推断段落发展。不同的文体, 写作思路和写作手法也不尽相同。做题时,要善于体 会作者的写作思路,揣摩作者的谋篇布局,从宏观上 左右文章的结构框架;同时,还要把握作者行文时所 运用的修辞手段,如对比、举例、下定义等。通过梳 理写作思路,明晰写作手法,即可对文章的发展作出 比较科学合理的推断和预测。

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(4)根据事实细节,推断合理信息。推理题要求在 理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,作出一定判断和推 论,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理题所 涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可是某几句话, 但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做 出在原文中找不到文字根据的推理,也不能根据表面 文字信息做多步推理。也就是说,要做到判断有据, 推论有理,忠实原文。切忌用自己的观点代替作者的 本意,切忌片面思考,得出片面结论。

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例 [2019·浙江D篇] My family and I lived across the street from Southway Park since I was four years old.Then just last year the city put a chain link fence around the park and started bulldozing (用推土机推平) the trees and grass to make way for a new apartment complex. When I saw the fence and bulldozers,I asked myself, “Why don’t they just leave it alone?”

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Looking back,I think what sentenced the park to oblivion ( 被 遗 忘 ) was the drought ( 旱 灾 ) we had about four years ago.Up until then,Southway Park was a nice green park with plenty of trees and a public swimming pool.My friends and I rollerskated on the sidewalks,climbed the trees, and swam in the pool all the years I was growing up.The park was almost like my own yard.Then the summer I was fifteen the drought came and things changed.

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There had been almost no rain at all that year. The city stopped watering the park grass. Within a few weeks I found myself living across the street from a huge brown desert. Leaves fell off the park trees , and pretty soon the trees started dying , too. Next,the park swimming pool was closed. The city cut down on the work force that kept the park, and pretty soon it just got too ugly and dirty to enjoy anymore.

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As the drought lasted into the fall,the park got worse every month. The rubbish piled up or blew across the brown grass. Soon the only people in the park were beggars and other people down on their luck. People said drugs were being sold or traded there now. The park had gotten scary,and my mother told us kids not to go there anymore.

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The drought finally ended and things seemed to get back to normal,that is,everything but the park. It had gotten into such bad shape that the city just let it stay that way. Then about six months ago I heard that the city was going to “redevelop” certain worn?out areas of the city. It turned out that the city had planned to get rid of the park,sell the land and let someone build rows of apartment buildings on it.

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The chain?link fencing and the bulldozers did their work. Now we live across the street from six rows of apartment buildings. Each of them is three units high and stretches a block in each direction. The neighborhood has changed without the park. The streets I used to play in are jammed with cars now. Things will never be the same again. Sometimes_ I_wonder,though,what_changes_another_drought _would_make_in_the_way_things_are_today.

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( )1.How did the writer feel when he saw

the fence and bulldozers?

A.Scared.

B.Confused.

C.Upset.

D.Curious.

【解析】 C 推理判断题。根据文章第一段的最后 一句:Why don’t they just leave it alone?以及 第二段的美好回顾,可以推断出,作者对现在的变化很 难过。

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( )2.Why was the writer told not to go to the park by his mother?
A.It was being rebuilt. B.It was dangerous. C.It became crowded. D.It had turned into a desert.
【解析】 B 推理判断题。根据文章第四段The park had gotten scary可知答案。

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( )3.According to the writer,what eventually brought about the disappearance of the park?
A.The drought. B.The crime. C.The beggars and the rubbish. D.The decisions of the city. 【解析】 D 推理判断题。根据文章倒数第二段It turned out that the city had planned to get rid of the park…可知答案。

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( )4.The last sentence of the passage implies that if another drought came,________.
A.the situation would be much worse B.people would have to desert their homes C.the city would be fully prepared in
advance D.the city would have to redevelop the
neighborhood 【解析】 A 推理判断题。根据文章第三段的整体理 解,可知旱情使事情变得很糟糕,由此可以推断出:再 来一场旱灾的话,事情会更加的糟糕。故答案选A。

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五、篇章结构型 最近两年,篇章结构题频繁地出现在各地高考英语 阅读理解题中,已经成为了一种新颖而独立的阅读题型。 从其考查内容而言,可分为三种:考查考生对整个文章 结构的组织能力;考查考生对后文内容的预测能力;考 查考生对文章写作手法、修辞手段的赏析能力。 A篇章结构主要的设题方式常有: (1)How is the passage organized? (2)Which of the following best shows the structure/organization of the passage? (3)What will the author most probably talk about next?

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(4)The author develops the passage mainly by ________.
(5)The first paragraph serves as a(n)________.
(6)The example of…is given to show/illustrate that________.
B篇章结构主要的解题策略常有: (1)了解文章结构的组织形式。从段落组织方式上讲, 常见的文章结构有三种:总分式结构(总→分;总→分→ 总;分→总)、并列式结构(段落之间是平行关系,并且相 对独立)、对照式结构(结构形式上是一正一反)。

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(2)了解文章的论证方法。从论证方法上讲,常 见的议论文结构有以下两类: Put forward a question→Analyze the question→Solve the question 即“提出问题、分析问题、解决问题”的 过程;Argument/idea→Evidence→Conclusion /Restating the idea 即“由论点到论据到结论或者 强调论点”的过程。

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(3)了解文章的修辞手法。从修辞手法上讲,在高考 阅读中主要考查下定义、分类说明、列举例证和对比等 写作手法。其中,“引用”和“例证”是议论文和说明 文中最常用的写作手法之一。是历年高考阅读试题中必 不可缺的命题方向。“引用”和“例证”的共同目的就 是增强说服力,来更好地达到说理、说明的目的。“引 用”和“例证”的共同功能是服务于段落或篇章的主题。

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例1 [2019·北京D篇—节选自文章第五段] Many people believe that higher education should be free because it is good for the economy (经济). Many graduates clearly do contribute to national wealth, but so do all the businesses that invest (投资) and create jobs. If you believe that the government should pay for higher education because graduates are economically productive, you should also believe that the government should pay part of business costs. Anyone promising to create jobs should receive a gift of capital from the government to invest.

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( )1.The author mentions businesses in Paragraph 5 in order to________.
A.argue against free university education B.call on them to finance students’ studies C.encourage graduates to go into business D.show their contribution to higher education

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【解析】 A 结构推断题。本题考查例证的功能。 题目问:此处谈到business有什么目的,就等于问议论 文中的论据有什么用,支持什么论点。马上从本段段首 找论点:Many people believe that higher education should be free…从全文也可以看出作者就 是要反对free higher education。

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例2 [2019·重庆C篇] It is hardly surprising that clothing manufacturers (生产商)follow certain uniform standards for various features(特征)of clothes. What seems strange,however,is that the standard adopted for women is the opposite of the one for men. Take a look at the way your clothes button. Men’s clothes tend to button from the right,and women’s from the left.

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Considering most of the world’s population—men and women—are right?handed, the men’s standard would appear to make more sense for women. So why do women’s clothes button from the left?

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History really seems to matter here. Buttons first appeared only on the clothes of the rich in the 17th century,when rich women were dressed by servants. For the mostly right?handed servants,having women’s shirts button from the left would be easier. On the other hand,having men’s shirts button from the right made sense, too. Most men dressed themselves,and a sword drawn from the left with the right hand would be less likely to get caught in the shirt.

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Today women are seldom dressed by servants,but buttoning from the left is still the standard for them. Is it interesting? Actually,a standard,once set,resists change. At a time when all women’s shirts buttoned from the left,it would have been risky for any single manufacturer to offer women’s shirts that buttoned from the right. After all, women had grown so used to shirts which buttoned from the left and would have to develop new habits and skills to switch.

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Besides,some women might have found it socially awkward to appear in public wearing shirts that buttoned from the right,since anyone who noticed that would believe they were wearing men’s shirts.

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( )1.The passage is mainly developed by________.
A.analyzing causes B.making comparisons C.examining differences D.following the time order 【解析】 A 篇章结构题。本题考查文章的论证方 法。通观整篇文章可以看出,作者在开始提到一个现 象——男女衣服的标准相反,然后分析这种现象产生的 历史原因。由此判断选A项。

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例3 [2009·北京] How Room Designs Affect Our Work and Feelings Architects have long had the feeling that the places we live in can affect our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. But now scientists are giving this feeling an empirical(经验的,实证的) basis. They are discovering how to design spaces that promote creativity, keep people focused, and lead to relaxation.

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Researches show that aspects of the physical environment can influence creativity. In 2019, Joan Meyers?Levy at the University of Minnesota, reported that the height of a room’s ceiling affects how people think. Her research indicates that higher ceilings encourage people to think more freely, which may lead them to make more abstract connections. Low ceilings, on the other hand, may inspire a more detailed outlook.

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In additions to ceiling height, the view afforded by a building may influence an occupant’s ability to concentrate. Nancy Wells and her colleagues at Cornell University found in their study that kids who experienced the greatest increase in greenness as a result of a family move made the most gains on a standard test of attention.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
Using nature to improve focus of attention ought to pay off academically, and it seems to, according to a study led by C.Kenneth Tanner, head of the School Design & Planning Laboratory at the University of Georgia. Tanner and his team found that students in classrooms with unblocked views of at least 50 feet outside the window had higher scores on tests of vocabulary, language arts and maths than did students whose classrooms primarily overlooked roads and parking lots.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
Recent study on room lighting design suggests that dim(暗淡的) light helps people to loosen up. If that is true generally, keeping the light low during dinner or at parties could increase relaxation. Researchers of Harvard Medical School also discovered that furniture with rounded edges could help visitors relax.

模块 3 │ 题型分类
So far scientists have focused mainly on public buildings. “We have a very limited number of studies, so we’re_almost_looking_at _the_problem_through_a_straw(吸管),” architect David Allison says. “How do you take answers to very specific questions and make broad, generalized use of them? That’s what we’re all struggling with.”

模块 3 │ 题型分类
( )1.Which of the following shows the organization of the passage?

模块 3 │ 题型分类
CP: Central Point P: point? Sp: Sub— point(次要点)C: Conclusion
【解析】 C 篇章结构题。本题考查段落的组织形 式。本文第一段为总要点,最后一段为结论,要点1、 2、3共同服务于结论,重要的是要点二又包含了两个 次要点。综上分析可知答案为C。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
应试点睛
要想顺利通过高考英语阅读理解部分,学生必须具 备《高中英语新课程标准》规定要达到的词汇量和固定 短语量、熟悉语法结构,拓宽知识面,熟悉各种体裁和 题材的文章,提高阅读速度,提高通过阅读获取信息的 能力。此外,在复习中,应该注意以下几点:

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
一、 速读全文,了解大意知主题 阅读的目的是获取信息。阅读能力一般指阅读速度 和理解能力两个方面。高考要求的阅读速度大约是每分 钟60个词。考生必须在十分有限的时间内运用略读、扫 读、跳读等技巧快速阅读,搜寻关键词、主题句,捕捉 时空、顺序、情节、人物、观点,并且理清文章脉络, 把握语篇实质,掌握文章大意。阅读时读者没有必要研 读全文,速读的诀窍在于浏览文章的内容提要、前言、 标题、副标题、插图、表格、开头和结尾等部分,这样

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
就可以把握文章大意了。许多文章在第一段提出问 题,中间段落进行分析、例证,最后一段是归纳结 论,每段第一句话往往是主题句。抓主题句,是快 速掌握文章大意的主要方法。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
二、详读细节,理顺思路与脉络 文章绝不是互不相干的句子杂乱无章的堆砌。作者为 文,有脉可循。如记叙文多以人物为中心,以时间或空间 为线索,按事件的发生、发展、结局展开故事;论述文则 包含论点、论据、结论三大要素,通过解释、举例来阐述 观点。你可根据文章的特点,详读细节,以动词、时间、 地点、事件、因果等为线索,找出关键词语,运用“画图 列表法”,勾画出一幅完整清晰的文章主题和细节的认知 图。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
三、抓住主干,化解难句捕信息 要实现快速准确理解文章大意,就要学会抓句子的关 键成分,即句子的主干成分,如主语、谓语和宾语,因为 它们是传达信息的主要载体,其他成分,不论它有多么长, 多么复杂它都是辅助成分。要说明的核心问题是,我们阅 读英语文章时,一定要有一个全局观念,从宏观上来把握 文章,做到了这一点,我们面对各类文章的各类题型

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
都能够从容应对。 比如:Another element in the emergence of prodigies(神童),I found , is a society that values excellence in a certain field and is able nurture talent. 只要我们抓 住了element is society就可以得知,社会是神童 出现的一个因素。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
四、利用规律技巧,轻松应考走捷径 分析研究阅读理解历届考题,可以发现命题者命制的 考点是有一定规律的,且考点规律常与某种题型(主旨题、 细节题、逻辑题、观点态度题、词义题)相对应。如果考 生掌握了这些规律,就能在第一遍快速阅读短文时,敏锐 地捕捉到考点并能预测可能会出的题型。下面,将这些考 点规律及对应题型归纳如下:

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
常考点规律:(1)举例子、打比喻 为了使自己的观点更有说服力、更加明确,作者经常 用具体的例子打比方,句中常由as, such as, for example, for instance等引导的短语或句子作为举例句, 这些例句或比喻成为命题者提问的焦点。考生需注意的是 例子或比喻一般是和文章或段落中心紧密相关的,常以 “细节事实性”题型和“推断性”题型出现,但偏倾于 “推断性”题型。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
(2)引用人物论断 作者为了正确表达出自己的观点或使论点更有依 据,常常引用某名人的论断或重要发现等。命题者常 在此做文章。多以“推理性”题为主,有时也出“细 节事实性”题型。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
(3)转折处与强对比 一般而言,转折后的内容常常是语义的重点,命题 者常对转折处的内容进行提问。转折一般通过however, but, yet, in fact等词或短语来引导。强对比常由 unlike, until, not so much…as等词或短语引导。命 题者常对用来对比的双方属性进行考查。 比如文章中说 甲具有X属性,但乙与甲不同,问乙有何属性?答曰:非 X属性。此类考点常出现在逻辑推理型题中,少数出现于 其他题型中。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
(4)复杂句 复杂句常是命题者出题之处,包括同位语、插入 语、定语、长句后半句、从句、不定式等,命题者主 要考查考生对句子之间指代关系、文章段落之间关系 的理解,常以逻辑推理题型出现,包括少量其他题型。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
(5)因果句 命题者常以文中因果句命制一些考查文中两个事件 内在的因果关系的试题,或出些概括文意、段意试题。 一般以“推理性”题型和主旨大意题型出现,兼顾少量 其他题型。表示因果关系的词有:because, since, for, as, therefore, consequently, result in, originate from 等。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
(6)特殊标点符号 由于特殊标点符号后内容是对前面内容的进一步解 释和说明,因此命题者常以标点符号后的内容进行提问。 具体说,特殊标点符号包括:(1)破折号(表解释);(2) 括号(表解释);(3)冒号(表解释);(4)引号(表引用)。 题型一般有推理题,主旨大意题,细节事实题等。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
(7)段首,段尾句 在短文中第一段首句或末段末句往往是文章中心思 想的表达处;有时某一段的段首,段尾句是该段的主题 句。因此,命题者常在这些地方出题。题型基本上属主 旨大意型。 (8)最高级与绝对性词汇 文中若出现must,all,only,anyone,always, never等绝对性词汇,或形容词副词的最高级形式,往往 是考点,一般出“细节性问题”。因为这些地方概念绝 对,答案唯一,无论是命题还是答题,都不会产生歧义。 命题人员以此为考点,可保证命题绝对正确。

模块 3 │ 应试点睛
以上分析,基本上概括了历届考试阅读理解题考点 常考处及其对应题型。考生掌握了这些规律,在读文章 时,就要在这些考点常出现地方作些记号。阅读完毕, 这些作记号的地方基本上就是出题的地方。然后再对照 后面的题目,一一找到相对应的考点,再细细分析做题。 这样就避免做一题,看一下整个段落,甚至全文,从而 节省了时间。

专题 一 │人物传记类
专题一 人物传记类

专题 一 │ 专题导读
专题导读
人物传记阅读理解是高考英语常考材料之一。人物 传记主要涉及某人的生平事迹、趣闻轶事、生活背景、 个性特征、成长和奋斗历程等,其特点是以时间的先后 或事件的发展为主线,脉络清楚,可读性较强。此类文 体主要考查学生对细节的辨认能力以及推理判断能力。 做此类阅读理解题时往往是材料易看懂,题目不好做的 感觉。做题时要注意以下几点:(1)理清事件的线索; (2)分析人物的个性特点;(3)把握记叙的顺序,是顺叙、 倒叙还是插叙?

专题 一 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·福建] F. Scott Fitzgerald,born on September 24,1896,an American novelist,was once a student of St.Paul Academy,the Newman School and attended Princeton University for a short while.In 1917 he joined the army and was posted in Alabama,where he met his future wife Zelda Sayre.Then he had to make some money to impress her.

专题 一 │ 真题再现
His life with her was full of great happiness,as he wrote in his diary:“My own happiness in the past often approached such joy that I could not share it even with the person dearest to me but had to walk it away in quiet streets and take down parts of it in my diary.”

专题 一 │ 真题再现
This Side of Paradise,his first novel,was
published in 1920.Encouraged by its success, Fitzgerald began to devote more time to his
writing. Then he continued with the novel The Beautiful and Damned(1922),a collection of short stories Tales of the Jazz Age(1922),and a play The Vegetable(1923).But his greatest success was The Great Gatsby,published in 1925,which quickly
brought him praise from the literary world. Yet it failed to give him the needed financial security. Then,in 1926,he published another collection of
short stories All the Sad Young Men.

专题 一 │ 真题再现
However,Fitzgerald’s problems with his wife Zelda affected his writing. During the 1920s he tried to reorder his life,but failed. By 1930,his wife had her first breakdown and went to a Swiss clinic. During this period he
completed novels Tender Is the Night in 1934 and The Love of the Last Tycoon in 1940.While his
wife was in hospital in the United States,he got totally addicted to alcohol. Sheila Graham, his dear friend,helped him fight his alcoholism.

专题 一 │ 真题再现

( )1. How many novels written by Fitzgerald

are mentioned in the passage?

A. 5.

B. 6.

C. 7.

D. 8.

( )2. Which of the following is the correct

order to describe Fitzgerald’s life

according to the passage?

a. He became addicted to drinking.

b. He studied at St. Paul Academy.

专题 一 │ 真题再现
c. He published his first novel This Side of Paradise.
d. The Great Gatsby won high praise.
e. He failed to reorder his life. f. He joined the army and met Zelda. A. f?c?e?a?b?d B. b?e?a?f?c?d C. f?d?e?c?b?a D. b?f?c?d?e?a

专题 一 │ 真题再现
( )3. We can infer from the passage that Fitzgerald ________. A. had made some money when he met Zelda in Alabama B. was well educated and well off before he served in the army C. would have completed more works if his wife hadn’t broken down D. helped his friend get rid of drinking while his wife was in hospital

专题 一 │ 真题再现
( )4. The passage is probably followed by a concluding paragraph about ________. A. Zelda’s personal life B. Zelda’s illness and treatment C. Fitzgerald’s friendship with Graham D. Fitzgerald’s contributions to the literary world

专题 一 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文讲述了美国著名文学家弗兰西 斯·司各特·菲茨杰拉德的生平、生活极其重要作品。
1. A 细节理解题。根据题意,由文章中关键词
novel可知,文章中提到的Fitzgerald的小说有:This Side of Paradise, The Beautiful and Damned, The Great Gatsby, Tender Is the Night , The Love of the Last Tycoon共计5篇。

专题 一 │ 真题再现
2. D 事件排序题。根据第一段中“…was once a student of St. Paul Academy…In 1917 he joined the army…”可知Fitzgerald最先在圣保罗学院学习, 然后参加的军队……
3. C 推理判断题。由第四段第一句“However, Fitzgerald's problems with his wife Zelda affected his writing.”可知。
4. D 推理判断题。根据人物传记的特点和本段 对Fitzgerald生活、作品的描述,说明了Fitzgerald 的作品对文学界的意义,因此随后一段应该是关于 Fitzgerald对文学界的贡献的。

专题 一 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) Would you believe that the first outstanding deaf teacher in America was a Frenchman? His name was Laurent Clerc. He became a friend of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and together they founded America’s first school for the deaf.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
Laurent Clerc was born in a small village near Lyons, France, on December 26, 1785.When he was one year old, he fell into a fire, losing both his hearing and his sense of smell.
At 12, Laurent entered the Royal Institution for the Deaf in Paris where he excelled in his studies. After he graduated, the school asked him to stay on as an assistant teacher.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
Meanwhile, in America, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was studying to be a minister. He was very concerned about the lack of educational opportunities for the deaf. Therefore, in 1815, Gallaudet sailed to London, England to seek ideas on how to teach deaf people. While he was there, he met a French educator of the deaf who invited him to go to Paris to spend three months learning at the Royal Institution for the Deaf, the school where Laurent Clerc was

专题 一 │ 专题预测
teaching. Gallaudet accepted the offer. The two worked and studied well together. When the time came for Gallaudet to return, he asked Clerc to come with him. Clerc accepted on one condition: that he would stay in America only a short time.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
The two men set sail on June 18, 1816.The voyage across the Atlantic Ocean took 52 days; however, Clerc and Gallaudet put the time to good use. Clerc studied English, and Gallaudet studied sign language. They discussed the school for the deaf which they planned to open. On the long trip, they had many conversations about education and deafness. The year after they arrived, they founded a school for the deaf in Harford, Connecticut.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
At the school, Clerc led a busy life. He taught signs to Principal Gallaudet; he taught the pupils; and he taught hearing men who came to the school to study deaf education.
In 1819, Clerc married Eliza Crocker Boardman, one of his pupils. They had six children. He retired from teaching in 1858.Although he had intended to return to France, he never did. He died on July 18, 1869 in the United States.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )1.Why did Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet sail to London?
A.He needed to finish his studies to become a minister.
B.It was the easiest way to get to France. C.He wanted to study their system of deaf education. D.He wanted to marry Alice Cogswell.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )2.From the information in this passage we can infer that________.
A.Laurent Clerc was an intelligent man B.Clerc had difficulties learning language C.Clerc married Eliza in order to get his Green Card D.Clerc was paid well because he made such important contributions to society

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )3.On their trip from Paris to America, Clerc and Gallaudet ________.
A.played cards and socialized B.studied and discussed their plans for a deaf school C.founded a school for the deaf D.Gallaudet studied English and Clerc studied sign language

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )4.Which is the right order of the things Clerc did?
A.Met Gallaudet, moved to America, got married, went to school in Paris.
B.Met Gallaudet, went to school in Paris, moved to America, got married.
C.Went to school in Paris, met Gallaudet, moved to America, got married.
D.Got married, went to school in Paris, met Gallaudet, moved to America.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )5.The main idea of this passage could best be stated as________.
A.Clerc managed his time well, and was able to teach a lot of information in a short period of time
B.Thomas Gallaudet was indebted to Clerc for all that he taught him
C.Clerc preferred teaching deaf students to hearing students
D.Clerc, an educated Frenchman, had a great impact on American Deaf Education

专题 一 │ 专题预测
1.C 细节理解题。第四段“He was very concerned about the lack of educational opportunities for the deaf和to seek ideas on how to teach deaf people.”与C项表达虽然不同,但意思 基本一致。
2.A 推理判断题。可以用排除法解答此题,B项 没想到;C项文中既没有说明为什么与Eliza结婚,更谈 不上当时是否有“绿卡”。D项没有足够的信息推断挣 钱多少。

专题 一 │ 专题预测
3.B 细节理解题。根据第五段中“They and discussed the school for the deaf which they planned to open.”可以确定答案是B。
4.C 逻辑顺序题。根据第三段、第五段、第六段 和最后一段in 1819, Clerc got married.可确定C项正 确。
5.D 主旨大意题。全文围绕Clerc和他对美国聋 儿教育的影响,所以D项正确,而A项面太窄,B项偏离 主题,本文针对的不是Thomas Gallaudet,C项文中根 本没提到。

专题 一 │ 专题预测
(二) Powerful, blonde and over six feet tall, Maria Sharapova is the most brilliant tennis player who has ever stepped on tennis court. In the summer of 2019, seventeen?year?old Sharapova shocked the tennis world by defeating defending champion Serena Williams in the singles finals at Wimbledon, becoming the first Russian player to win the prestigious tennis event, and the third youngest winner in the history of the tournament.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
Born on April 19, 1987, in Nyagan, a town in western Siberia, Russia, Maria Sharapova was encouraged by her parents to try everything, from dancing and music to athletics. She discovered tennis after her fourth birthday. Her parents liked to play tennis, too, so they began teaching her how to hit the ball. She proved to be a quick learner, and when she was six years old they traveled to Moscow for a youth tennis clinic.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
Sharapova and her father moved from Russia to Florida when she was nine so that she could study at the tennis academy of Nick Bollettieri. She won her first junior championship title at the age of thirteen, and turned professional in 2019.Then Sharapova steadily worked her way up through the professional ranks, claiming her first WTA victory in Japan in 2019.Her crowning moment came the next year, when she won Winbledon, at a young age of 17, solidifying a consistent spot in the top five. She

专题 一 │ 专题预测
gained her second and third major titles by beating Justine Henin at the 2019 US Open and Ana Ivanovic at the 2019 Australian Open. Sharapova has earned a spot on Forbes magazine’s “Celebrity 100” list as the highest paid female athlete in the world.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
Sharapova hopes to win Wimbledon, the Australian, French, and US Opens in the same year. No other female player has done so since German champion Steffi Graf in 1988.Sharapova also looks forward to a career beyond tennis. She has done some modeling, is a devoted reader of fashion magazines, and has even helped design some of her court outfits with Nike. Fashion design might be a career option when she retires

专题 一 │ 专题预测
from tennis. Acting would be another choice. “Nothing scares me , ” she said, “because I’m not worried about failure. You never know until you try. So if you don’t try, you’ve failed. All I know is, I’m starving to be the best.”

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )1.Which of the following is not TRUE? A.Sharapova became the champion of the
Wimbledon tournament at the age of 17. B.Sharapova is the third Russian player in
the history of Wimbledon to win the champion. C.Sharapova began to play tennis at the age
of four. D.The Wimbledon Tournament is an important
event.

专题 一 │ 专题预测

( )2.Sharapova won her first junior

championship title at________.

A.six

B.four

C.seventeen D.thirteen

( )3.According to the story, the Forbes

magazine________.

A.is a youth tennis training center

B.holds the Wimbledon tournament

C.ranks the famous people worldwide every year

D.introduces fashion

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )4.What does the underlined word “clinic”in the second paragraph mean?
A.An office providing medical service. B.Sports training center. C.Stadium holding competitions. D.A person offering medical service.

专题 一 │ 专题预测
( )5.The best title of the story is________.
A.An Outstanding Tennis Star B.History of The Wimbledon Tournament C.Success from Youth D.Championships Sharapova Has Got

专题 一 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 莎拉波娃以青春秀丽的外表及不俗 的球技成为新一代球员中“美女兼实力派”的代表。 毕竟“ 天才少女成名记”的故事发生过太多次,而后 如流星般“陨落”的更是不在少数,若是莎拉波娃在 荣誉与掌声背后能够一如既往地努力进步,才可能有 希望成为明日网坛真正的天后。

专题 一 │ 专题预测
1.B 细节理解题。文章第一段末句说the first Russian player to win the prestigious tennis event, and the third youngest winner in the history of the tournament 而非第三位获 得温布尔登网球公开赛冠军的俄罗斯选手。
2.D 细节理解题。文章第三段说She won her first junior championship title at the age of thirteen。

专题 一 │ 专题预测
3.C 推理判断题。从文章的介绍来看,《福布 斯》是一本定期公布名人排行榜的杂志。
4.B 词义理解题。clinic 在此意为“培训中 心,培训学校”。
5.A 主旨大意题。综合全文可知,本文主题为 《杰出的网球明星》比较合理。其他答案过于片面。

专题 二 │ 故事类
专题二 故事类

专题 二 │ 专题导读
专题导读
故事类文章描述的是一件具体事情的发生、发展和结 局,通常有时间、地点、人物、事件等。有些故事是按事 件发展的经过为主线叙述的,在叙述的过程中有详有略; 有些故事是按时间的顺序叙述的,有顺叙、倒叙等。从总 体上来讲,故事类文章的难度通常不大,在阅读过程中, 我们一直在某个线索的引导下,随着作者的思路去了解一 个故事或一件事情的始末,因此会感到比较轻松。命题往

专题 二 │ 专题导读
往从故事的情节、人物或事件之间的关系、作者的意图和 态度、故事的前因和后果等方面入手,考查学生对细节的 辨认能力以及推理判断能力。阅读此类文章应特别注意: (1)若是一般故事性文章,应读懂故事的发生、发展、高 潮和结局;(2)若是“哲理故事”,要理解故事所蕴含的 哲理意义;(3)若是 “逸闻趣事”,应体会对话的风趣性, 进而才能感受幽默的精髓。

专题 二 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·四川] I grew up in a house where the TV was seldom turned on and with one wall in my bedroom entirely lined with bookshelves, most of my childhood was spent on books I could get hold of. In fact, I grew up thinking of reading as natural as breathing and books unbelievably powerful in shaping perspectives (观点) by creating worlds we could step into, take part in and live in.

专题 二 │ 真题再现
With this unshakable belief, I, at fourteen, decided to become a writer. Here too, reading became useful. Every writer starts off knowing that he has something to say, but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He has to find his own voice by reading widely and discovering which parts of the writers he agrees or disagrees with, or agrees with so strongly that it reshapes his own world. He cannot write

专题 二 │ 真题再现
without loving to read, because only through reading other people’s writing can one discover what works, what doesn’t and, in the end, together with lots of practice, what voice he has.
Now I am in college, and have come to realize how important it is to read fiction (文学作 品).As a law student, my reading is in fact limited to subject matter—the volume (量) of what I have to read for classes every week means there is little time to read anything else. Such

专题 二 │ 真题再现
reading made it all the clearer to me that I live in a very small part in this great place called life. Reading fiction reminds me that there is life beyond my own. It allows me to travel across the high seas and along the Silk Road, all from the comfort of my own armchair, to experience, though secondhand, exciting experiences that I wouldn’t necessarily be able to have in my lifetime.

专题 二 │ 真题再现
( )1.What can be inferred about the author as a child?
A.He never watched TV. B.He read what he had to. C.He found reading unbelievable. D.He considered reading part of his life.

专题 二 │ 真题再现
( )2.The underlined word “voice” in the second paragraph most probably means “________”.
A.an idea B.a sound quality C.a way of writing D.a world to write about

专题 二 │ 真题再现
( )3.What effect does reading have on the author?
A.It helps him to realize his dream. B.It opens up a wider world for him. C.It makes his college life more
interesting. D.It increases his interest in worldwide
travel.

专题 二 │ 真题再现
( )4.Which of the following can be the best title of this text?
A.Why do I read? B.How do I read? C.What do I read? D.When do I read?

专题 二 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文是记叙文。作者通过自己的亲 身体验,讲述读书使人形成自己的独立观点,读书使人 开扩视野的重要作用。
1.D 细节理解题。根据首段第一二句, “I grew up in a house…with one wall in my bedroom entirely lined with bookshelves… . I grew up thinking of reading as natural as breathing”可 知作者是在一个以书为伴的环境中长大的,读书像呼吸 那样已经成为生活必需。

专题 二 │ 真题再现
2.C 词义推测题。根据文中 “…but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He has to find his own…”可以推断出voice所表达的意思是 “写作方式”。
3.B 细节理解题。由文章的最后一句可得出答案 4.A 主旨大意题。文章作者主要以自己的亲身体验 讲述读书的重要性。因此Why do I read?“我为什么读 书?”作题目最佳。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) “I’ve changed my mind. I wanted to have a telescope, but now I want my daddy back.” Lucien Lawrence’s letter to Father Christmas written after his schoolteacher father had been knifed to death outside his school gate must have touched every heart. Lucien went on to say that without his father he couldn’t see the stars in the sky. When those whom we love depart from us, we cannot see the stars for a while.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
But Lucien, the stars are still there, and one day, when you are older and your tears have gone, you will see them again. And, in a strange way, I expect that you will find your father is there, too, in your mind and in your heart. I find that my parents, long dead now, still figure in many of my dreams and that I think of them perhaps more than I ever did when they were alive. I still live to please them and I’m

专题 二 │ 专题预测
still surprised by their reactions. I remember that when I became a professor, I was so proud, or rather so pleased with myself, that I couldn’t wait to cable my parents. The reply was a long time in coming, but when it did, all Mother said was “I hope this means that now you will have more time for the children!” I haven’t forgotten. The value of my parents still live on.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
It makes me pause and think about how I will live on in the hearts and minds of my children and of those for whom I care. Would I have been as ready as Philip Lawrence has been to face the aggressors (挑衅者), and to lay down my life for those in my care? How many people would want me back for Christmas? It’s a serious thought, one to give me pause.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
I pray silently, sometimes, in the dead of night, that ancient cry of a poet “Deliver my soul from the sword, and my darling from the power of the god.” Yet I know the death comes to us all, and sometimes comes suddenly. We must therefore plan to live forever, but live as if we will die tomorrow. We live on, I’m sure, in the lives of those we loved, and therefore we ought to have a care for what they will remember and what they will treasure. If more parents knew this in their hearts to be true, there might be fewer knives on our streets today.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )1.According to the whole text we can see that the first paragraph ________.
A.puts forward the subject of the text B.shows the author’s pity on the kid C.acts as an introduction to the discussion D.makes a clear statement of the author’s views

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )2.In the second paragraph the author mainly wants to explain to us________.
A.how much he misses his parents now B.why his parents often appear in his dream C.when Lucien will get over all his sadness D.how proud he was when he succeeded in life

专题 二 │ 专题预测

( )3.What feeling did the author’s

mother express in her reply?

A.Proud.

B.Happy.

C.Disappointed.

D.Worried.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )4.In the author’s opinion, the value of a person’s life is________.
A.to leave behind a precious memory to the people related
B.to have a high sense of duty to the whole
C.to care what others will remember and treasure
D.to share happiness and sadness with his family

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )5.What does the writer mean by the sentence taken from an old poem?
A.Call on criminals and murderers to lay down their guns.
B.Advise parents stay with their children safely at home.
C.Spend every day meaningfully in memory of the death.
D.Try to keep violence and murder far away from society.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 该篇是夹叙夹议的文章。从一个孩 子给圣诞老人写的一封信引出了父母应该为孩子留下 什么这一主题。
1.C 结构功能题。第一段是作为话题的引子, 即从孩子的书信引出作者对问题的思考。所以本段的 功能是引出话题。故C正确。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
2.B 段落主题题。从第二段内容可知,作者的 父母虽然去世多年,但他们在作者心目中的地位甚至 比他们活的时候还要高。尤其是最后一句The value of my parents still live on更是对本段做了高度的 总结。与之符合的意思应该选B。
3.D 判断推理题。第二段讲述了作者成为教授 后非常兴奋,急于把这一消息告之父母。但他们的反 映却出乎作者意料。母亲只是说:“这下你该有空陪 陪孩子了吧!”由转折连词but可知,母亲为作者只顾 自己的前程,不关心孩子而担心,故D项正确。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
2.A 细节理解题。由倒数第二段“He opened his programme and sure enough under the heading “events” he saw the three words(就是上文提到的, Javelin, Pole Vault, Shot Putt) the men had said. 可知答案,关键词为“events”。
3.B 细节理解题。由第二段的“Excited by the student’s colourful description of Spain and the Games, Angus decided to attend the event in person and two months later arrived in Barcelona. ”可以看出,这位西班牙学生的描述使 Angus很兴奋。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
4.A 推理判断题。第一段告诉我们,15岁的 Angus MacLeod 生活在大山里,消息比较闭塞,没有收 音机也没出过远门,只能从父亲以及来爬山的人那里了 解一些情况。下文他对听到的消息兴奋的表现(看到运 动员带着装备进去他也拿了铁丝网要进场)也证明了这 一点。故选A。
5.B 推理判断题。文章告诉我们,那些拿着装备 的人都是参赛者(competitors),而他不是参赛者,肩 上扛着“a roll of barbed wire (铁丝网)”,并且 “as casually as he could, shouted”,肯定会被拒 之门外的。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
4.A 目的意图题。根据第三段It makes me pause and think about how I will live on in the hearts and minds of my children and of those for whom I care.可知,母亲的话使我思考我死后如何还能活在我的 孩子以及我关心的人心中的问题,符合 A项表达。
5.D 句意理解题。这句话的字面意义是:从剑中抽 出我的灵魂,从上帝的权威下拯救我的爱人。结合第一段 所涉及的校园暴力事件来看,这句话表达了作者的愿望: 远离暴力。 所以D项正确。Deliver…from…意为 “把……从……中挽救出来”。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
(二) As Joe and Michael were heading towards the Drivers License place, Michael, who was behind the wheel, froze as he heard the voice on the radio saying that a man had been murdered by a bullet that had came from the sky. He immediately drove off and went to a secret place. Later on that day, after thinking that the shot they had fired possibly wasn’t the shot that killed Mr Ward, they headed back to the Drivers License place where Michael failed the driver’s test because he could

专题 二 │ 专题预测
not think straight. For the next two months, Michael and Joe hid the secret that the bullet had actually shot Mr Ward.
During this time, Jenna Ward started to realize life without her father. While Jenna mourned the death of her father, a strange boy started to appear at the front steps of the church across the street from her house. After many nights of watching this boy, she finally recognized that it was Michael who was sitting on the steps every night.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
After months of finding out where the shot came, the police were able to narrow the search area down to within a four?block area. Among these four blocks were Michael’s house and Joe’s house. When the police arrived at Michael’s house, his dad mentioned the gun that Michael had received from his grandpa at his

专题 二 │ 专题预测
birthday party. Michael, trying to be sly(狡猾 的), told the cops that Joe had borrowed the gun. Upon this, Joe said that the gun had been stolen out of his car along with his CD player. After the police were gone, Michael met Joe at a special spot and told Joe the gun was under the wood pile in his backyard.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
One day, when Michael thought the police would not come back, he came home to find the police searching his backyard with metal detectors. When the Sergeant(警官) went into the woods behind the house, he came out with a bullet that Joe and he had shot off on his birthday. The bullet matched the one that they had recovered from Mr. Ward, but without the gun, the police could not place Michael as the killer.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
With the pressure mounting, Michael finally broke down and realized he had to give up. On a Saturday morning, he went to Jenna’s house to confess to her and her mother and then turned_himself_in.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )1.It can be inferred from the story that Michael and Joe________.
A.shot and killed Mr Ward by accident B.shot and killed Mr Ward deliberately C.fired a bullet that killed Ward from the sky D.were experienced professional murders

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )2.Michael and Joe drove to the Drivers License place________.
A.to find out whether Mr Ward was dead B.to find a secret place to hide themselves C.to take the driver’s license test D.to have their car wheel repaired

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )3.Why did Michael sit on the steps of the church every night?
A.He was monitoring Jenna’s whereabouts (行踪).
B.He was probably feeling upset and guilty. C.He wanted to make sure that Ward was dead. D.He wanted to show sympathy for the Ward’s.

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )4.From the passage we can learn that________.
A.Michael lent the gun to Joe at his birthday party
B.the gun together with a CD player was stolen from Joe’s car
C.Michael hid the gun under the wood pile in his backyard
D.the Sergeant discovered the bullet in the wood pile

专题 二 │ 专题预测
( )5.The underlined phrase “turned himself in” in the last paragraph means________.
A.returned home B.went into the room C.fled into the woods D.delivered himself to the police

专题 二 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 本文是著名小说Swallowing the Stones 的故事缩写。
1.A 推理判断题。从全文特别是第一段的 “Later on that day, after thinking that the shot they had fired possibly wasn’t the shot that killed Mr Ward, they headed back to the Drivers License place”可知他们不是故意枪杀Mr Ward的。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
2.C 细节理解题。第一段中“they headed back to the Drivers License place where Michael failed the driver’s test because he could not think straight”可知Michael是去考驾照,但因思想 不集中而未考过。
3.B 推理判断题。从全文看Michael并非故意杀 人,因生日玩枪走火打死了无辜的沃德先生,事后十分 害怕不安,当然也会有负罪感,故每天晚上到沃德家对 面的教堂台阶上坐着观察沃德家, 故选B。

专题 二 │ 专题预测
4.C 细节理解题。由第三段最后一句After the police were gone, Michael met Joe at a special spot and told Joe the gun was under the wood pile in his backyard.可知。
5.D 词义猜测题。从文章最后一段可知,随着精 神上的压力不断上升,Michael终于崩溃了,他到詹娜 家向她和她妈妈认错说了实话,然后就去警察局自首了 (turned himself in)。

专题 三 │新闻报道类
专题三 新闻报道类

专题 三 │ 专题导读
专题导读
时事新闻类阅读材料在近年高考中屡屡涉及。这 类材料往往语言地道、内容时新。阅读材料的组成有 一个共同的特点,即都是由标题(Headlines)、导语 (Introductions)、背景(Background)、主体(Main body)和结尾(Ends)五部分构成。此类文章主题突出, 文章的第一句话或第一自然段往往就是对整篇文章的 高度概括,因此读懂首句或首段至关重要。此类阅读

专题 三 │ 专题导读
材料的命题在新闻背景和主体部分设题较多,有时可 能会省去一两个部分,要求考生依据五个部分之间的 必然联系去推知未知的要素。要想做好时事新闻类阅 读理解题,考生必须要善于捕捉新闻细节,根据问题 善于找到相关句并能分析理解长难句,善于根据上下 文猜测单词、短语的含义,善于归纳、概括、推理、 判断及简单计算,才能做好这部分试题。

专题 三 │ 真题再现
真题再现 [2019·四川] Somali pirates(海盗) robbed three Thai fishing
ships with 77 sailors on board nearly l,200 Miles off the Somali coast, the farthest?off?shore attack to date,an officer said Tuesday.
Pirates have gone farther south and east in answer to increased patrols(巡逻)by warships off the Somali shore. The robbing of the three ships Sunday was about 600 miles outside the normal operation area for the international force, said a spokesman.

专题 三 │ 真题再现
The spokesman said the attack so far out at sea was a clear sign that the international patrols against pirates were having a “marked effect on pirate activity in the area”.
“Once they start attacking that far out, you’re not even really talking about the Somali basin or areas of water that have any connection with Somalia,” said an officer,Roger Middleton.“Once you’re that far out, it’s just the Indian Ocean, and it means you’re looking at trade going from the Gulf to Asia, from Asia to South Africa. ”

专题 三 │ 真题再现
“This is the farthest robbing to date.They are now operating near the Maldives and India,” said another officer.
The three ships—the MV Prantalay 11,12,and 14—had 77 members on board in total.All of them are Thai, the spokesman said.Before the Sunday robbing, pirates held l l ships and 228 sailors.

专题 三 │ 真题再现
Pirates have increased attacks over the past year in hopes of catching more dollar payments. Because of increased patrols and defenses on board ships,the success rate(率)has gone down,though the number of successful attacks has stayed the same year over year.

专题 三 │ 真题再现
( )1.The pirate attack reported in the text happened ________.
A.far out in the Indian Ocean B.in the normal patrol area C.near the Somali, coast D.in the south of Africa

专题 三 │ 真题再现
( )2.According to the text, which can best describe the situation of the pirate problems?
A.More goods on board are lost. B.Pirate attacks happen in a larger area now. C.The number of attacks has stayed the same these years. D.Pirate attacks are as serious as before along the Somali coast.

专题 三 │ 真题再现

( )3.Which is TRUE about the warship

patrols according to the text?

A.The patrols are of little effect.

B.The patrols are more difficult.

C.More patrols are quite necessary even in

Asia.

D.The patrols only drive the pirates to

other areas.

( )4.How many sailors were held by the

pirates up to the time of the report?

A.228.

B.77.

C.383.

D.305.

专题 三 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文是一篇新闻报道。报道索马里海 盗周日抢劫三艘泰国渔船,并引用部分官员的话,让读 者了解当前的索马里海盗的形势。
1.A 细节理解题。由Once you’re that far out,it’s just the Indian Ocean“一旦你到了那么 远,那就是印度洋了”可得出答案。

专题 三 │ 真题再现
2.B 主旨大意题。文章由发生在周末的海盗对泰 国渔船的袭击,引出索马里海盗的袭击已经超越国际保 护队的正常护卫范围,而进入更深的海域。
3.B 细节理解题。依据第四段可知巡逻明显见效, 又有一旦再超过那么远,那就是印度洋,那就意味着你 在看管从波斯湾到亚洲,从亚洲到南美洲的所有行线。 可知应是巡逻难度加大了。

专题 三 │ 真题再现
4.D 推理计算题。由文章首句Somali pirates robbed three Thai fishing ships with 77 sailors on board… 及 Before the Sunday robbing, pirates held 11 ships and 228 sailors. 可知。

专题 三 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) SAN FRANCISCO— As skies are filled with millions of migrating birds, European scientists say the seasonal miracle appears to depend on a seeming contradiction: The fatter the bird, the more efficiently it flies. The result of their study contradicts a central theory of aerodynamics(空气动力学), which predicts that the power needed to fly increases with weight.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
For birds, apparently, the cost of flying with heavy fuel loads is considerably smaller than previously thought.
Researchers found that red knot wading birds double their normal body weight of 100 grams before making their twice?a?year, non?stop commute(路程) between the British Isles and the Russian Arctic. Distance: 5,000 kilometers.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
Another study in the journal Nature measured the benefits of flying in an aerodynamic V formation, which allows bird to save energy by gliding in the lead bird’s air stream.
Flying in formation, their heart rates were as much as 14.5 percent lower than flying solo, according to Henri Weimerskirch, a French scientist. The findings help explain how birds complete difficult migrations.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
Researchers had assumed that thinner, more athletic birds would have the best chance of survival.
The first study suggests that building up fat deposits(存放) to be burned as fuel during the migrating is worth more than the energy it takes to carry the additional weight. In the study, researchers said their team studied the birds flown at different body masses during 28 simulated(模拟) flights. They were injected with a small amount of water containing a radioactive element that enabled the team to measure the amount of energy burned.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )1.Researchers used to believe________. A.the thinner a bird is, the less energy
it needs to fly B.migratory birds make a journey from the
British Isles to the Russian Arctic C.aerodynamics makes no sense D.birds eat more before they begin their
migrations

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )2.According to the passage, birds prefer to fly in the V formation rather than fly solo because________.
A.it is against aerodynamic to fly in the V formation
B.they can save energy while migrating C.they won’t get lost with a bird leading the way D.in this way their heart beat faster so that they can fly faster

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )3.The researchers didn’t ________ in the study.
A.inject the birds with water containing a radioactive element
B.watch birds of different body masses in simulated flights
C.take the birds’ heart rates D.feed the birds to fatten them

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )4.The best title of the passage should be________.
A.Birds Fatten up for Journey B.Migratory Birds in Europe C.New Findings D.Migrating in V formation

专题 三 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 短文报道了对鸟迁徙的研究。研究 结果出乎人们的意料:因为鸟在迁徙过程中要消耗大量 能量,所以越肥胖的鸟越有可能在迁徙过程中存活。
1.A 推理判断题。由第一段中的“seeming contradiction:The fatter the bird,the more efficiently it flies.”可知,科学家们通过研究发 现一个似乎有些矛盾的事实:鸟的体重越重,飞行越有 效。再结合第七段Researchers had assumed that thinner,more athletic birds would have the best chance of survival可知,研究者原以为越瘦越强壮的 鸟,在迁徙飞行中越占优势,耗费的能量也越小。

专题 三 │ 专题预测
2.B 细节理解题。根据文章第五、六段的内 容可知,与单独飞行相比,鸟群排成V字形飞行时能 够节省能量。
3.D 细节理解题。由最后一段的“They were injected with a small amount water containing a radioactive element.”可知A是科学家们在试验 中有过的举措,故排除;从“their team studied the birds flying at different body mass

专题 三 │ 专题预测
during 28 simulated(模拟的)flights”可知,B也是 做过的;从第六段中的Flying in formation,their heart rates were as much as 14.5 percent lower than flying solo可以排除C;而科学家们并没有给鸟 儿喂食,使它们更肥,故答案为D。
4.A 最佳标题题。这篇短文报道了对鸟迁徙的研 究,研究表明因为鸟在迁徙过程中要消耗大量能量,所 以越肥胖的鸟越有可能在迁徙的过程中存活,因此这篇 短文的标题应该是A项。

专题 三 │ 专题预测
(二) Young adult filmmakers all hope to show their works in international festivals like Sundance and Toronto. But what about really young filmmakers who aren’t in film school yet and aren’t, strictly speaking, even adults?

专题 三 │ 专题预测
They are at the heart of Wingspan Arts Kids Films Festival, tomorrow, in a setting any director might envy: Lincoln Center. Complete with “red carpet” interviews and various awards, the festival has much in common with events for more experienced moviemakers, except for the age of the participants: about 8 to 18.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
“What’s really exciting is that they’re films for kids by kids,” said Cori Gardner, managing director of Wingspan Arts, a nonprofit organization offering youth arts programs in the New York area. This year the festival will include films not only from Wingspan but also from other city organizations and one from a middle school in Arlington, Virginia. “We want to make this a national event,” Ms. Gardner added.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
The nine shorts to be shown range from a Claymation biography of B.B.King to a science fiction adventure set in the year 3005.“A lot of the material is really mature,” Ms. Gardner said, talking about films by the New York City branch of Global Action Project, a media arts and leadership?training group. “The Choice is about the history of a family and Master Anti? Smoker is about the dangers of secondhand smoke.” Dream of the Invisibles describes young immigrants’ feelings of both belonging and not belonging in their adopted country.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
The festival will end with an open reception at which other films will be shown. These include a music video and full?length film whose title is Pressures.
( )1.Wingspan Arts Kids Film Festival________.
A.is organized by a middle school B.is as famous as the Toronto Festival C.shows films made by children D.offers awards to film school students

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )2.Which of the following is true of Wingspan Arts?
A.It helps young filmmakers to make money. B.It provides arts projects for young people. C.It’s a media arts and leadership? training group. D.It’s a national organization for young people.

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )3.The underlined word “shorts” in Paragraph 4 refers to________.
A.short trousers B.short kids C.short films D.short stories ( )4.Movies to be shown in the festival ________. A.cover different subjects B.focus on kids’ life C.are produced by Global Action Project D.are directed by Ms. Gardner

专题 三 │ 专题预测
( )5.At the end of this film festival, there will be________.
A.various awards B.“red carpet” interviews C.an open reception D.a concert at Lincoln Center

专题 三 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 本文是一篇娱乐报道类的文章。文 章讲述了Wingspan Arts Kids Film Festival是针对孩 子们作为制片人而设置一些令成人都羡慕的奖项。
1.C 细节理解题。由第二段最后一句话和第三段 第一句话可知Wingspan Arts Kids Films Festival播 放由孩子制片人制作的电影。
2.B 细节理解题。由第三段第一句话可知 Wingspan Arts是一个非盈利为目的的为青少年提供艺 术项目的纽约的组织。

专题 三 │ 专题预测
3 . C 词 义 猜 测 题 。 由 第 三 段 “ This year the festival will include films not only from Wingspan but also from other city organizations and one from a middle school in Arlington, Virginia”和shorts后面的关键词“to be shown”, 可判断出有很多部各种题材的电影将在此次电影节上上 映,其中的九个shorts,应该是九个短片电影。

专题 三 │ 专题预测
4.A 总结归纳题。由倒数第二段的内容描述,特 别是关键句“The nine shorts to be shown range from a Claymation biography of B.B.King to a science fiction adventure set in the year 3005.” 可总结归纳出此次电影节的电影主题内容涉及面非常广。
5.C 细节理解题。由最后一段的“The festival will end with an open reception at which other films will be shown.”可知电影节结束时会举办一次 开放的招待会,届时将会有其他的电影上映。

专题 四 │广告应用类
专题四 广告应用类

专题 四 │ 专题导读
专题导读
广告作为信息的载体,与人们的生活密切相关。广 告英语具有浓郁的生活气息和强大的感染力和表现力, 成为日常生活中一道亮丽的风景。广告英语与普通英语 存在许多差异,广告具有鲜明的目的性,即说服顾客进 行购买,这种目的性决定了其语言的特色和风格,使其 独立于其他文体。广告的题材包括旅游广告、招聘广告、 生活指南、通知告示、使用规则、注意事项、商品说明

专题 四 │ 专题导读
等。广告的语言特点是人名、地名、专有名词多;生词 多;缩略词、独词句、祈使句、省略句多;词汇较偏僻, 语言不规范,结构不完整。此类文章主要考查考生提取 信息和处理信息的能力,既注重特定细节的筛选、类比、 综合,又注重推理判断题的考查,题目设置较容易。答 题时要耐心细致,当问题与材料相同时,要学会“对号 入座”;当问题与原文不同时,要学会同义变换、解析 概念、归纳事实。

专题 四 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·四川] Alex London Research Laboratory (ALRL) is part of Alex Co., Ltd., a major Australian medicine?making company. Opened in 1992, ALRL specialises in the development of new medicines for the treatment of heart diseases. A position is now open for a Research Operations Manager(ROM) to support our growing research team at the new laboratories in Hatfield, due to open in the autumn of 2019.

专题 四 │ 真题再现
Reporting to the Director, you will help set up and run the technical and scientific support services of our new laboratories now under construction.You will be expected to provide expert knowledge about and be in charge of all areas of ALRL’S Health and Safety, and to communicate (沟通)with support employees at ALRL’S laboratories based at

专题 四 │ 真题再现
University College London. Working closely with scientists and other operations and technical employees, you will manage a small number of research support employees providing services to help with the research activities to be carried out at the new laboratories.

专题 四 │ 真题再现
Candidates(申请人) will have experience of both management and research support/technical services.Knowledge of research operations and excellent communication skills are necessary. Education to degree level is also desirable.
If you are interested in this position, please send your CV(简历)to Alex London Research Laboratory, University College London, Hatfield, London,W1E 6B7 or by email to ALRLalex. co. uk. For more Information, please visit alex. co. uk.

专题 四 │ 真题再现
( )1.What can be learnt about the new laboratories from the text?
A.They have not yet been set up. B.They are in Hatfield, Australia. C.They belong to University College London. D.They are new workplaces for Australian researchers only.

专题 四 │ 真题再现

( )2.What are the duties of a ROM,

according to the text?

a.To carry out research activities.

b.To be in charge of ALRL’s Health and

Safety.

c.To help run the technical and scientific

support services.

d.To manage a small number of research

support employees.

A.a,b,c.

B.a,b,d.

C.b,c,d.

D.a,c,d.

专题 四 │ 真题再现
( )3.What does the fourth paragraph mainly talk about?
A.The technical skills of a would?be ROM. B.The practical experience of a would?be ROM. C.The personal information of a would?be ROM. D.The necessary requirements for a would?be ROM.

专题 四 │ 真题再现
( )4.What is the purpose of the text? A.To describe the job of a ROM. B.To provide information about ALRL. C.To announce an open position at ALRL. D.To make known the opening of the new laboratories.

专题 四 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文为应用性文体。提供了Alex Co., Ltd招聘一名ROM的信息,并对要招聘的职位提出了具体的 要求。
1.A 细节理解题。根据文章第二段可知新的实验室 还未建立。
2.C 细节理解题。依据文章第三自然段:you will help set up and run the technical and scientific support services… You will be expected to…be in charge of all areas of ALRL’s Health and Safety…you will manage a small number of research support employees…可得答案。

专题 四 │ 真题再现
3.D 主旨大意题。依据第四段提供的信息,申 请人要有管理和技术服务的经验、研究操作的知识及 极好的交际技能等可知本段主要谈及对应聘职位者的 具体能力要求。
4.C 写作目的题。本篇文章为广告招聘。目的 自然是让大家了解ALRL公司有一公开招聘的职位。

专题 四 │ 专题预测
专题预测 (一)
Live_the_“American_Dream What is it: Work & Travel USA Who are qualified: Full?time college students, above 18 years old About the program: Application for the 2009 Work & Travel USA program has just started. It’s an 8~16 weeks’ summer program for college students to work

专题 四 │ 专题预测
and travel in the US. Employers include Boeing, Hilton Hotel and 7?Eleven. For next summer, about 3,500 positions are open to Chinese students. Applicants must pass a language test and sometimes an interview, and pay a registration fee to join the program.
(source: Cultureexchange. org) Hundreds_needed_by_Volkswagen What is it: Shanghai Volkswagen jobs Who are qualified: College students graduating in 2009

专题 四 │ 专题预测
About it: Shanghai VW offers over 300 positions from engineering to marketing to college students graduating in 2009.Applicants should have an excellent academic record, CET—6 or the same level language certificate in German, and good computer skills. Campustalks will take place in Shanghai, Changchun, Harbin, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanjing, Beijing and Xi’ an from October.
(source: campus, chinahr. com/2009/pages/csvw)

专题 四 │ 专题预测
Xiaonei_looking_for_graduates What is it: Oak Pacific Interactive (OPI) internships(实习) Who are qualified: College juniors and first?year post graduate students About it: OPI is now offering internship positions for test?engineer, development?engineer and assistant to the director of corporate culture.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
For engineering positions, candidates should major in computer science or a related field, have communication ability and be familiar with various development languages. For assistant to the director positions, candidates should be adept in document writing, activities organizing and office software.
(source: campus. xiaonei. com)

专题 四 │ 专题预测
( )1.These advertisements are most probably advertisements ________.
A.on the Internet intended for the general public to read
B.in a newspaper intended for large companies to read
C.on the Internet intended for college students to read
D.in a newspaper intended for college students to read

专题 四 │ 专题预测
( )2.The opportunity of ________ is offered only to college students graduating in 2009.
A.working in America B.traveling in America C.positions in VW D.OPI internship

专题 四 │ 专题预测
( )3.If you want to apply for assistant to the director positions, you must ________.
A.be good at document writing B.study computer science C.have communication ability D.be familiar with various languages

专题 四 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 本文是网上的三则招聘广告。 1.C 细节理解题。三则广告在Who are qualified
栏里谈到的招聘对象都是大学生,且三则广告的source 栏中都是网址,可知消息来自因特网,故选C。
2.C 细节理解题。由第二则广告中的“Who are qualified:College students graduating in 2009” 可知答案为C。
3.A 细节理解题。从第三则广告中的“For assistant to the director positions,candidates should be adept in document writing,activities organizing and office software.”可知A项符合题意。

专题 四 │ 专题预测
(二)
Is a loved one missing some body parts? Is everyone at your dinner table of the same species? Humans and chimps(黑猩猩)differ in only 400 genes. And should that worry us?Is it horrible for you thinking one fifth of all our genes are owned by someone else, or a person and his family may be hunted cross?country because they happen to have certain valuable genes? We live in a time of great scientific leaps!

专题 四 │ 专题预测
Next challenge our sense of reality, blending fact and fiction into a breathless tale of a new world where nothing is what it seems.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
The son of a zookeeper, 16?year?old Pi Patel is raised in Pondicherry, India. Planning a move to Canada, his family takes a ride on an enormous ship. After a shipwreck, Pi finds himself in the Pacific Ocean, trapped on a 26?foot lifeboat with a wounded zebra, a hyena(鬣狗), an orangutan(猩 猩), and a tiger named Richard Parker. It sounds like a colorful setup. But these wild animals don’t burst into song as in the Disney cartoons.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
All want to survive, however Pi finds himself the weakest one of all. After much infighting, Pi and Richard Parker remain the boat’s only passengers. Pi is left to survive for 227 days through waters with his large dangerous companion, using all his knowledge, wits and faith.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
Five people you meet in heaven When a lonely and elderly man dies in an accident, he awakens in an unfamiliar place called Heaven where five people, some strangers, some loved ones, take him on a clear journey through his life. Each soul has a story to tell, a secret to reveal(揭示), and a lesson to share. Through them Eddie learns “lessons”, finds out why certain events happened in his physical life, and understands the meaning of his own life. The book explores the unexpected mysteries of the afterlife by reminding us what really matters here on earth.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
Marley & Me:life and love with the world’s worst dog
Job and Jenny were just beginning their life together. They brought home Marley, a yellow fur?ball of a dog. Life would never be the same. Marley crashed through doors, and ate nearly everything he could get his mouth around. However, just as he refused any limits on his behavior, his love and loyalty were boundless, too. He shared the couple’s joy and heartbreak. He was there whenever the couple needed help.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
Marley & Me is so much more than the story of a lovable dog; it’s the story of a family. Toward the end of the book, Grogan speaks of the life lessons—loyalty, courage, devotion, simplicity, joy—that Marley taught him.

专题 四 │ 专题预测

( )1.What does the underlined word

“blending” in the first book introduction

mean?

A.Ruin.

B.Break.

C.Combine.

D.Attempt.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
( )2.What happened to the survivors on the life boat according to the introduction?
A.Pi managed to kill those animals and finally survived.
B.They worked hand in hand to get through the sea.
C.They had to fight against one another in order to survive.
D.Richard Parker killed other animals but was killed by Pi.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
( )3.Five People You Meet in Heaven tells an old man’s experience in Heaven in order to reveal________.
A.the existence of Heaven B.the mystery of death C.human’s future life D.the true meaning of life

专题 四 │ 专题预测
( )4.Who is Grogan most probably according to the introduction?
A.The author of Marley & Me. B.A friend of John and Jenny. C.An expert taming dogs. D.The previous owner of the dog.

专题 四 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 本文是一则广告,介绍几本书的内 容。
1.C 词义猜测题。画线词的语境说,该书挑战 我们的现实感,将事实与科幻blend成一个新世界,由 此判断其含义是C,“联合,结合”。
2.C 细节理解题。这是第二本书的内容,主人 公为了生存,与其他动物展开殊死搏斗。

专题 四 │ 专题预测
3.D 推理判断题。该书的介绍说,这本书探索 “来生”的神秘,提醒我们,重要的是今天,由此判断 该书的主题是D,了解生活的真谛。
4.A 推理判断题。最后一句说,在小说的结尾, Grogan谈到Marley给他的启迪,由此判断,Grogan是该 书的作者。

专题 五 │文化教育类
专题五 文化教育类

专题 五 │ 专题导读
专题导读
文化教育类阅读理解文章属高考常选材料之一。这 类文章常涉及文化、教育、法制、宗教等方面的文学艺 术、发明创造、文化遗产保护、宗教与文化、风俗与习 惯、道德与法制、中外文学名著节选、各国学校教育、 家庭教育等等。这类材料的命题点往往落在主旨大意题、 事实细节题上。在做这类阅读理解题时,应注意以下几

专题 五 │ 专题导读
个方面:(1)采用先题后文:先读题目,再带着问题读 文章。这类阅读理解文章相对来说事实细节题稍多一点, 如果带着问题读文章,有利于我们抓细节。(2)先做细 节题。因为做完了局部性的事实细节题后,自然会加深 我们对文章的理解,这样更有利于做主旨大意题。(3) 重点敲定主旨题。主旨大意题提问的形式主要有两大类: 一类是Main idea型;一类是Topic或Title型。

专题 五 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·全国I] EDGEWOOD—Every morning at Dixie Heights High School, customers pour into a special experiment: the district’s first coffee shop run mostly by students with special learning needs. Well before classes start, students and teachers order Lattes, Cappuccinos and Hot Chocolates. Then, during the first period, teachers call in orders on their room phones, and students make deliveries.

专题 五 │ 真题再现
By closing time at 9:20 am, the shop usually sells 90 drinks.
“Whoever made the chi tea, Ms. Schatzman says it was good,” Christy McKinley, a second year student, announced recently, after hanging up with the teacher.
The shop is called the Dixie PIT, which stands for Power in Transition. Although some of the students are not disabled, many are, and the PIT helps them prepare for life after high school.

专题 五 │ 真题再现
They learn not only how to run a coffee shop but also how to deal with their affairs. They keep a timecard and receive paychecks, which they keep in check registers.
Special?education teachers Kim Chevalier and Sue Casey introduced the Dixie PIT from a similar program at Kennesaw Mountain High School in Georgia.
Not that it was easy. Chevalier’s first problem to overcome was product?related. Should schools be selling coffee? What about sugar content?

专题 五 │ 真题再现
Kenton County Food Service Director Ginger Gray helped. She made sure all the drinks, which use non?fat milk, fell within nutrition(营养) guidelines.
The whole school has joined in to help. Teachers agreed to give up their lounge(休息 室)in the mornings. Art students painted the name of the shop on the wall. Business students designed the paychecks. The basketball team helped pay for cups.

专题 五 │ 真题再现
( )1.What is the text mainly about? A.A best?selling coffee. B.A special educational program. C.Government support for schools. D.A new type of teacher?student relationship.

专题 五 │ 真题再现
( )2.The Dixie PIT program was introduced in order to________.
A.raise money for school affairs B.do some research on nutrition C.develop students’ practical skills D.supply teachers with drinks

专题 五 │ 真题再现
( )3.How did Christy McKinley know Ms. Schatzman’s opinion of the chi tea?
A.She met her in the shop. B.She heard her telling others. C.She talked to her on the phone. D.She went to her office to deliver the tea.

专题 五 │ 真题再现
( )4.We know from the text that Ginger Gray________.
A.manages the Dixie PIT program in Kenton County
B.sees that the drinks meet health standards
C.teaches at Dixie Heights High School D.owns the school’s coffee shop

专题 五 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文主要介绍Dixie Heights High School实施的一项帮助自己学生就业的特殊教育项目。
1.B 主旨概括题。本文主要介绍Dixie Heights High School实施的一项帮助自己学生就业的特殊教育项 目。
2.C 推理判断题。依据第五段the PIT helps them prepare for life after high school得知该项目有助于 孩子们掌握实用技能,便于将来就业。

专题 五 │ 真题再现
3.C 细节理解题。依据第四段Ms. Schatzman says it was good 和after hanging up with the teacher推断,二者是通过电话了解信息的。hang up挂 断电话。
4.B 推理判断题。依据倒数第三段She made sure all the drinks, which use non?fat milk, fell within nutrition (营养) guidelines推断, Ginger Gray要确保这里制做的咖啡符合健康标准。

专题 五 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) Have you ever thought about what determines the way we are when we grow up? Remember the TV program Seven Up? It started following the lives of a group of children in 1973.We first meet them as wide?eyed seven?year?olds and catch up with them at seven?year intervals: nervous 14?year?olds, serious 21?year?olds and then grown?ups.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
Some of the stories are inspiring, others sad, but what is interesting in almost all the cases is the way in which the children’s early hopes and dreams are shown in their future lives.For example, at seven, Tony is a lively child who says he wants to become a sportsman or a taxi driver.When he grows up, he goes on to do both.How about Niki? She says, “I would like to find out about the moon.” And she goes on to become a space scientist.As a child, soft?spoken Bruce says he wants to help “poor children” and ends up teaching in India.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
But if the lives of all the children had followed this pattern, the program would be far less interesting than it actually was.It was the children whose childhood did not prepare them for what was to come that made the program so interesting.Where did their ideas come from about what they wanted to do when they grew up? Are children influenced by what their parents do, by what they see on television or by what their

专题 五 │ 专题预测
teachers say? How great is the effect of a single important event? Many film directors, including Steven Spielberg, say that an early visit to the cinema was the turning point in their lives. Dr.Margaret McAllister, who has done a lot of research in this area, thinks that the major factors are parents, friends and their wider society.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )1.What does the text mainly discuss? A.New ways to make a TV program interesting. B.The importance of TV programs to children. C.Different ways to make childhood dreams come true. D.The influence of childhood experience on future lives.

专题 五 │ 专题预测

( )2.What does the underlined word

“influenced” mean in the last paragraph?

A.Impressed.

B.Improved.

C.Affected.

D.Attracted.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )3.What are the examples in Paragraph 2 meant to show?
A.Many people’s childhood hopes are related to their future jobs.
B.There are many poor children in India who need help.
C.Children have different dreams about their future.
D.A lot of people are very sad in their childhood.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )4.Spielberg’s story is meant to show that ________.
A.going to a movie at an early age helps a child learn about society
B.a single childhood event may decide what one does as a grown?up
C.parents and friends can help a child grow up properly
D.films have more influence on a child than teachers do

专题 五 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 幼年时,父母、朋友和较广泛的社交 圈子将影响孩子日后的生活。
1.D 主旨大意题。从文中所举的电视节目Seven Up及斯皮尔伯格的小时候去影院后来终成导演的例子来 看,文章全是围绕着“童年经历对未来生活有很大影响” 来展开的,故可知本文的主旨是D项。
2.C 词义猜测题。根据画线词所在句的语义“孩 子们会受到父母做事的方式、所看到的电视节目及老师 所讲的话的影响吗?”可知选C。

专题 五 │ 专题预测
3.A 推理判断题。第二段第一句讲到所有事例 中最有趣的就是孩子们的希望和梦想在未来得到了实 现,可见童年的希望和未来的工作是有关联的,故本 题选A。
4.B 推理判断题。包括斯皮尔伯格在内的许多 导演都说,早期到电影院去是他们人生的转折点,由 此可见特定的儿童时期的经历会决定孩子未来从事的 职业。

专题 五 │ 专题预测
(二) Why is it that students in less popular majors sometimes find it easier to get a job? Simple. It’s because they are out there in the “blue ocean”, a relatively untouched area.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
The term was created by Chan Kim and Renee Manborgne, two professors who use it to describe less crowded parts of business and industry with little or no competition. It contrasts with the “red ocean”, which is already saturated,_ competitive, and crowded with people or companies providing the same services or producing the same goods.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
According to these two authors,the primary goal of business is to enter the “blue ocean” or create a new market. This is done by creating what no one else has. Business must come up with creative things that are useful and affordable and reduce unnecessary costs. So customers get what they want for less and sellers get a higher return on their investment. When these two are combined, it’s a catalyst(催化剂)for the blue ocean market.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
McDonald’s is a popular example. Traditional restaurants have waiters, table settings, menus, and a certain type of service. McDonald’s, however, was different. It did away entirely with waiters and table service,and kept the menu limited.
But in its number of locations,speed,overall quality and child friendliness. McDonald’s did far better than traditional restaurants. In this sense,one can say that McDonald’s was a totally different concept in eating out. It met the blue ocean demand.

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )1.According to Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne,“blue ocean” means ________.
A.crowded parts of business and industry with little competition
B.new markets which are full of competition C.new companies offering different services from old ones D.certain untouched markets with few competitors

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )2.The underlined word “saturated” in Para. 2 probably means “________”.
A.carry out according to an unusual method B.arrange in advance C.be unable to take any more D.be different from the old market

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )3.McDonald’s success lies in________. A.its being different from traditional restaurants B.inventing a unique business with few competitors C.its advanced operation and management D.its best overall quality and services

专题 五 │ 专题预测
( )4.For a website providing information and services for new mothers, finding the “blue ocean” means________.
A.offering something other websites don’t have
B.offering the best information and services C.creating a new market to help the website stand out D.looking for a unique position in the marketplace

专题 五 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 本文介绍了由两位教授创造的名词 blue ocean——那些较为冷门的、与众不同的、竞争者 不多的生意或产业。
1.D 推理判断题。根据第一段最后一句话对blue ocean的解释(a relatively untouched area)以及第二 段第一句话对blue ocean的解释(less crowded parts of business and industry with little or no competition)可知答案。

专题 五 │ 专题预测
2.C 推理判断题。结合第二段对blue ocean和 red ocean的比较可知,red ocean是指竞争比较激烈, 人满为患,已经饱和,产品和服务雷同的产业,由此可 知C项与saturated意思最接近。
3.B 推理判断题。根据第四、五段中对麦当劳的 描述可知,它与传统的餐馆有很大的不同,即很独特, 因此很成功。另外,根据文中最后一句话(It met the blue ocean demand),再结合前面对blue ocean的解释 可知它的竞争者很少。由此可知B项正确。
4.C 推理判断题。根据文章中对blue ocean的解 释特别是第三段第一、二句话可知C项正确。即通过开 创一个新的市场使该网站胜出。

专题 六 │历史地理类
专题六 历史地理类

专题 六 │ 专题导读
专题导读
历史地理类文章一般涉及某个国家、地区、河流、山 脉、海洋、城镇等的地理位置以及与之相关的社会生活、 社会风情、政治经济、人文历史、自然资源、文化习俗、 文化遗产等方面的情况,相当一部分文章还附有图表供理 解或选择。文章选材来源于英语国家的主要名胜或历史事 件、历史年代;命题以细节题为主,有一些主观推断题;

专题 六 │ 专题导读
涉及一定的地理常识或历史知识。阅读史地类文章时, 要重点弄清楚各个地名、人名之间的相互关系和各个国 家、地区或城镇之间的地理方位。如果文章或试题有附 图或附表,一定要把附图或附表看懂、看明白。附图或 附表的存在就是帮助我们更好地读懂和理解文章,辅助 我们做好有关试题。

专题 六 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·重庆] Sitting on the peaceful coast of Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, watching the sun move quietly into the sea, you shouldn’t forget that Charles Darwin (1809—1882) arrived here in 1835.He stayed on the islands for five weeks, observing various animals. This finally inspired (启发) his famous work, On the Origin of Species. You can certainly follow Darwin’s footsteps and enjoy a trip from four to seven days to the islands.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
The islands are certainly a paradise (天堂) for wildlife, as there are no natural killers on the islands and the number of boats and visitors is under government control. Though you cannot walk freely as Darwin did about 200 years ago, each day is as impressive as it could be.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
The most well?known animals of the Galapagos is the giant tortoise(巨型陆龟), which can be seen moving slowly around the highlands of Sanra Cruz, the second largest island in the archipelago(群岛). Some of these creatures are so old that they might have been seen in their youth by Darwin himself.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
Despite strict control over activities and timing, your stay on the Galapagos will be remembered as a chain of incomparable pictures: diving with sea lions that swim and play within inches of you; feeling small sharks touch your feet as you swim; and, most magically, seeing a whale and her baby surface with a great breath of air.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
Traveling between the islands and observing the wildlife that so inspired Darwin,you will feel as though you are getting a special view of an untouched world.At night you will sleep on board the ship,leaving the wildlife in complete occupation of the islands,which are as undisturbed now as they have been since the beginning of time.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
( )1. What do we know about Darwin’s visit to the islands?
A. He studied different creatures on the islands.
B. He completed his famous book on the islands.
C. He was touched by the geography of the islands.
D. He was attracted by well?known animals of the islands.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
( )2. Which of the following plays a role in making the islands “a paradise for wildlife”?
A. Animals on the islands feed on grass. B. Local government forbids killing wildlife. C. People cannot visit the islands as they wish. D. Tourists are not allowed to touch the animals.

专题 六 │ 真题再现
( )3.Your stay on the islands will be most impressive mainly because of________.
A.the beautiful sea views B.Darwin’s inspiring trip C.a closer view of animals D.various daring activities

专题 六 │ 真题再现
( )4.Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
A.A Unique Attraction for Wildlife Lovers B.Calapagos as a Paradise for Adventures C.Charles Darwin as a Symbol of Galapagos D.A Successful Example of Wildlife Protection

专题 六 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文介绍了一个冒险家的乐园 Galapagos Islands,达尔文曾在这儿受到启发写出了《物 种起源》一书,同时,由于这儿保护得很好,直到现在依 然是旅游的好去处。
1.A 细节理解题。由文中的He stayed on the islands for five weeks, observing various animals. 可知达尔文在这儿观察了各种各样的动物。
2.C 细节理解题。根据文中…strict control over activities and timing…可知,当地对游客的活动和参观 时间都是有严格限制的,所以选C项。

专题 六 │ 真题再现
3.C 推理判断题。从文章最后三段的描写中知道, 在岛上能够给人印象深刻的就是和动物近距离的接触, 例如:在海里小鲨鱼的顽皮,海边海龟的悠闲等等。
4.A 主旨大意题。纵观整篇文章,作者描写了岛 屿的美丽风景、丰富的生物、较好的自然保护,旨在向 我们推荐Galapagos Islands,A项符合作者的意图,标 题也具有醒目的特点。

专题 六 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) Kiribati covers a massive 3.5 million square kilometers stretch of the Pacific Ocean, but in population terms it is one of the smallest countries in the world, with only 100,000 people. More than half of them live in the capital Tarawa—strip of coral which measures just 450 meters at its widest point. As well as being narrow, Kiribati is extremely low lying, which makes it one of the most easily influenced countries in the world when it comes to climate change.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
“We are counting the days rather than the decades…We don’t have the time that we thought we had previously,” Kiribati President Anote Tong said.
Pelenise Alofa returned to Kiribati six years ago. The changes she saw led to her becoming one of the islands principal climate change campaigners. “Things began to change when I came here. I realized the king tides were big, and I told them ‘have you heard of climate change, have you heard of global warming, this is part of it, you’re in it,’” Ms Alofa told SBS.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
Linda Uan and her New Zealand born husband John have been documenting the changing climate in Kiribati for nearly 20 years. They didn’t have to travel far to film the effects of a storm three years ago when the first time it washed through their home. “There’s been a lot of changes , ” Linda said, “When we were little there was a definite dry season and a definite wet season, now you can’t feel the difference anymore.”

专题 六 │ 专题预测
Kiribati is not just facing one knock?out punch but a whole round of killer blows. Because of its sensibility to the El Nino and La Nina weather patterns, climate scientists say droughts and floods will be more severe than in the past. Warmer seas could affect the migration patterns of fish, taking away vast taxes it gains from selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers, while increased storms are expected to destroy crops and make the limited supply of water in the shallow water pools undrinkable.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
It’s a claim the country will take to Copenhagen as it seeks to get the world’s big emitters (排放者) to face up to the consequences of their actions. “It’s a whole world issue,” President Tong said. “It’s a moral issue…it’s almost criminal.”

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )1.According to the passage, we can infer that________.
A.Kiribati covers a land area of 3,500,000 km2
B.the country’s average altitude is 450 meters in Kiribati
C.Kiribati is one of the countries facing the climate change calmly
D.Over fifty thousand people live in Tarawa

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )2.President Anote’s words are quoted in order to show________.
A.the high pressure from time B.the importance of measuring time C.the different timing units D.the personal attitude towards time

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )3.Which of the following statements does Ms Alofa probably agree with?
A.The tides hitting Kiribati used to be bigger than they are now.
B.Most people in the world have never heard of global warming.
C.Nobody can keep away from the effects caused by climate changes.
D.Changes in this country will make you a climate change campaigner.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )4.Climate changes have brought about the consequences EXCEPT________.
A.severe droughts and floods B.abundant fresh water C.fiercer storm and tide D.changed living patterns of fish

专题 六 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 基里巴斯是太平洋上的一个岛国,由 于地势极低,这个国家对气候变化最敏感,全球性气候 变暖直接威胁到这个国家。人们将在哥本哈根国际减排 会议上呼吁那些排放大国面对他们的行为带来的后果。
1.D 细节理解题。从文章开头可知A项错,这是基 里巴斯包括海洋在内的面积;它的首都最宽的地方为450 米,B项错误;从文章的叙述判断C项不对,因为该国的 人们对环境变化带来的生存危机很担忧。第一段说该国 的人口只有十万,其中大半住在首都,由此判断D项正确。

专题 六 │ 专题预测
2.A 推理判断题。第二段中该国总统说,我们是 以“天”而不是以“十年”为计算单位(而生活),我们 没有原先以为的那么长的时间。从语境看,这些话反映 出总统的忧患意识。
3.C 推理判断题。在第三段Alofa对周围的人说, “……你听说过全球性气候变暖吗?这就是其中一部分, 你就身居其中。”显然其含义是C,谁也逃不掉气候变化 带来的影响。
4.B 细节理解题。关于气候变化带来的影响,第五 段提到旱灾、洪灾和鱼的生活方式的改变,第三、四段 提到潮汐与风暴,没有提到B(充足的淡水)。

专题 六 │ 专题预测
(二) In Yemen, you always see one type of vehicle on the road: the water truck. They travel mountain roads and cross deserts to bring Yemenis a good more valuable than oil. It is one that only the rich can afford, with the supply regularly being cut off. Others must rely on scarce rain or charity to fight thirst.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
Experts say Yemen is going to be the first country in the world to run out of water. The capital, Sanaa, will run out of drinking water as early as 2025, says a report by the World Bank.
Hannan, an 18?year?old from Lahej, said that only the rich could prepare for cuts in supply. “In a good week we’ll have a water supply all week but then the following week there will be water only for a day or two,” she said.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
She and her husband, a factory worker, pay
3,000 riyals (99 yuan) for a week’s supply of
water from a touring water truck when the taps run dry. With an income of only 20,000 riyals
(660 yuan) a month, this means the family often
spend half their money on water. “There are a lot of people who can’t afford
it and they have to rely on their neighbors to help,” she said.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
The average person in Yemen survives on one?fifth of what the World Health Organization considers to be enough water.
In Taiz, in the south, tap water is available only once every 45 days. In the mountainous Malhan district in the north, women and children climb a 1,500?m mountain to collect water from a spring, often in the small hours to avoid long queues.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
Yemen is located in Southwest Asia, bordering the Arabian and Red seas. Yemeni people have lived on scarce water supplies for thousands of years but that problem has been made serious by conflict in the area, the fast?growing population and the use of water to grow a drug called qat. With one of the world’s highest rates of population growth — 3.46 percent, Yemen is the poorest Arab country.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
The government is considering desalinating ( 淡 化 ) seawater, but this would be expensive and it may now be too late. The only other solution is to cut down on farming, but that means importing even more food.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )1.The passage aims to ________. A.analyze the reasons why Yemen lacks
water B.suggest some solutions for the water
issue in Yemen C.present how serious the water problem is
in Yemen D.encourage the world to help Yemenis who
are suffering from water shortage

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )2.When Hannan said that only the rich could prepare for cuts in supply, she meant that ________.
A.rich people drank more water than the poor
B.rich people could buy water from the water trucks if there was a water supply cut
C.she had a rich neighbor who often helped her during water supply cut
D.the rich were not affected by water supply cut

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )3.Which of the following may be a reason why Yemen is short of water?
A.The country has had no rain for a long time.
B.The population of Yemen is growing fast. C.The government has failed to reduce farming. D.People can’t afford the water from government water trucks.

专题 六 │ 专题预测
( )4.The best title for the passage is________.
A.Never take water for granted B.The water truck—the commonest sight in Yemen C.The first country to run out of water in the world D.No water for Yemen

专题 六 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 由于西南亚的也门是一个水资源特别 匮乏的国家,在这里,水资源的匮乏已经延续了几千年, 而地区冲突、人口的快速增长等问题使这个地区的饮水 问题特别突出。也门也是最贫穷的阿拉伯国家。
1.C 推理判断题。从全文内容可知,本文的中心 话题是介绍也门这个国家的饮水困难。

专题 六 │ 专题预测
2.B 细节理解题。第一段说只有富人才能买得起 水,第三段Hannan说,只有富人能为水供应减少做好准 备,即,假如减少了饮用水的供应,富人能花钱买水用, 而穷人则只能依靠降雨或慈善机构的施舍。
3.B 细节理解题。从倒数第二段可知,也门的饮 用水短缺是长期存在的问题,而这个国家人口的快速增 长使这个问题更突出。

专题 六 │ 专题预测
4.D 主旨大意题。从所给四个选项看,A项“不 要以为水是理所当然的”与本文的核心话题无关, B“水车,也门街头最常见的风景”只是也门缺水的结 果,只是文章内容的一部分,C“世界上第一个用完水 的国家”不全面,而D项“也门没有水”最能形象地表 达全文的内容。

专题 七 │社会生活类
专题七 社会生活类

专题 七 │ 专题导读
专题导读
社会生活类阅读文章在高考中的出现频率较高。它涉及 人们衣、食、住、行等方面的社会万象、生活经历、饮食、 饮食与健康、休闲与娱乐、旅游、生态旅游、服装、住房等 等内容。这类文章同学们读起来感觉轻松,试题做起来也比 较得心应手。在高考阅读理解题中,这类文章属搭配类材料, 所以,它的命题多数属于中低等难度的送分题,如事实细节 题、计算题、识图题等。此类文章的命题多以事实细节题为 主。做题时,要先从题干中找到关键性词语,然后快速在文 章中寻找相关细节,细心比较所给选项与文中细节的区别, 在准确理解了细节的前提下,最终确定最佳答案。

专题 七 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·陕西] Stop Spam! When I first got an e?mail account ten years ago, I received communications only from family, friends, and colleagues. Now it seems that every time I check my e?mail, I have an endless series of advertisements and other correspondence that do not interest me at all. If we want e?mail to continue to be useful, we need specific laws that make spamming(发送垃圾邮件) a crime.

专题 七 │ 真题再现
If lawmakers do not do something soon to prohibit spam, the problem will certainly get much worse. Computer programs allow spammers to send hundreds of millions of e?mails almost instantly. As more and more advertisers turn to spam to sell their products, individual(个人的) e?mail boxes are often flooded with spam e?mails. Would people continue to use e?mail if they had to deal with an annoying amount of spam each time?

专题 七 │ 真题再现
This problem is troubling for individuals and companies as well. Many spam e?mails contain computer viruses that can shut down the entire network of a company. Companies rely on e?mail for their employees to communicate with each other. Spam frequently causes failures in their local communications networks, and their employees are thus unable to communicate

专题 七 │ 真题再现
effectively. Such a situation results in a loss of productivity and requires companies to repeatedly repair their networks. These computer problems raise production costs of companies, which are, in the end, passes on to the consumer.

专题 七 │ 真题再现

For these reasons, I believe that lawmakers

need to legislate (立法) against spam. Spammers

should be fined, and perhaps sent to prison if

they continue to disturb people. E?mail is a

tool which helps people all over the world to

communicate conveniently, but spam is

destroying this convenience.

( )1.What does the underlined word

“correspondence” in Paragraph 1 probably mean?

A.Messages.

B.Ideas.

C.Connections.

D.Programs.

专题 七 │ 真题再现
( )2.According to the text, what is the major cause of the flooding spam?
A.Companies rely on e?mail for communications.
B.More people in the world communicate by e?mail.
C.Many computer viruses contain spam e?mail. D.More advertisers begin to promote sales through spam.

专题 七 │ 真题再现

( )3.According to Paragraph 3, who is

the final victim of spam?

A.The business. B.The advertiser.

C.The employee. D.The consumer.

( )4.What is the purpose of the text?

A.To inform.

B.To educate.

C.To persuade.

D.To instruct.

专题 七 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 随着网络信息技术的发展,越来越多 的人们使用网络邮箱来传递信息,但现在垃圾邮件的泛 滥已经成为网络用户们深恶痛绝的事情,人们呼吁立法 来阻止垃圾邮件的泛滥。
1.A 词义猜测题。根据本文中的e?mail一词以及 endless series of advertisements可以推断出 correspondence在此处意思是:信件,垃圾邮件,由此 可知本题选A。

专题 七 │ 真题再现
2.D 推理判断题。由第二自然段中的As more and more advertisers turn to spam to sell their products, individua(个人的)l e?mail boxes are often flooded with spam e?mails. 一句可知本题选D。
3.D 推理判断题。根据本段的最后一句可知本题 选D。
4.C 推理判断题。通读全文可知本文作者摆出了 垃圾邮件的危害,其目的是说服立法人员尽快出台法律 阻止垃圾邮件的蔓延,故本题选C。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) I told my friend Graham that I often cycle the two miles from my house to the town center but unfortunately there is a big hill on the route. He replied, “You mean fortunately.” He explained that I should be glad of the extra exercise that the hill provided.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
My attitude to the hill has now changed. I used to grumble as I approached it but now I tell myself the following. This hill will exercise my heart and lungs. It will help me to lose weight and get fit. It will mean that I live longer. This hill is my friend. Finally as I went my way up the incline I console myself with the thought of all those silly people who pay money to go to a gym and sit on stationery exercise bicycles when I can get the same value for free. I have a smug smile of satisfaction as I reach the top of the hill.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
Problems are there to be faced and overcome. We cannot achieve anything with an easy life. Helen Keller was the first deaf and blind person to gain a University degree. Her activism and writing proved inspirational. She wrote, “Character cannot be developed in ease and quiet. Only through experiences of trial and suffering can the soul be strengthened, vision cleared, ambition inspired and success achieved.”

专题 七 │ 专题预测
One of the main determinants of success in life is our attitude towards adversity. From time to time we all face hardships, problems, accidents, afflictions and difficulties. Some are of our making but many confront us through no fault of our own. Whilst we cannot choose the adversity we can choose our attitude towards it.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
Douglas Bader was 21 when in 1931 he had both legs amputated following a flying accident. He was determined to fly again and went on to become one of the leading flying aces in the Battle of Britain with 22 aerial victories over the Germans. He was an inspiration to others during the war. He said, “Don’t listen to anyone who tells you that you can’t do this or

专题 七 │ 专题预测
that. That’s nonsense. Make up your mind, you’ll never use crutches or a stick, then have a go at everything. Go to school, join in all the games you can. Go anywhere you want to. But never, never let them persuade you that things are too difficult or impossible.”

专题 七 │ 专题预测
The biographies of great people are littered with examples of how they took these kinds of steps to overcome the difficulties they faced. The common thread is that they did not become defeatist or depressed. They chose their attitude. They chose to be positive. They took on the challenge. They won.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )1.The writer has a smug smile of satisfaction as he reaches the top of the hill because________.
A.he was actually killing two birds with a stone
B.compared with those silly people, he was smarter
C.he lost weight by cycling to the town center every day
D.he was informed of a short route from his house to the town

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )2.The writer quoted Helen Keller and her saying as an example to demonstrate________.
A.one cannot achieve anything with an easy life
B.only disabled persons can experience hardship deeply
C.one’s success is determined by nothing but his / her attitude
D.it’s rare for a deaf and blind person to gain a University degree.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )3.From this passage we know that Douglas Bader was a person of________.
A.individual and creative character B.stubborn yet charming personality C.great bravery and strong will D.excellent speaker with great influence ( )4.In writing style, the last paragraph serves as________. A.an explanation B.a demonstration C.an introduction D.a summarization

专题 七 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 这是一篇夹叙夹议的文章。作者骑自 行车到市中心要经过一段山路,作者对此颇有微词,但 友人的一番话使他改变了对此的态度,并由此对人生的 逆境有了新的感悟。
1.A 推理判断题。从第二段的叙述看,作者改变 了对这段山路的态度,因为这段山路锻炼了他的心和肺, 文中的heart暗示锻炼了他的意志,而lungs只对身体的 锻炼,因此可谓一石二鸟,起到了双重作用。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
2.A 推理判断题。第三段开头说,问题是要去面 对并克服的。如果总是过着悠闲的日子,我们就不能获 得任何成就。然后作者以海伦·凯勒为例子阐述了这个 观点。
3.C 推理判断题。从文章对他的叙述可知,他在 1931年的一次飞行事故中失去了双腿,但靠着顽强的毅 力,他重上蓝天,获得了22次对德国空战的胜利。从他 的行动以及他的话判断,他是一个有毅力的勇敢的人。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
4.D 篇章结构题。从文章的篇章结构看,最后 一段作者根据前面的叙述下结论:伟人的传记都有不 少这样的例子,面对厄运,他们没有被打败,而是积 极面对,迎接挑战并且战胜了困难。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
(二) Being a good parent is harder now than it has ever been before. In pressurized modern lives, demands to be a fulfilled individual, a good partner and a good worker, take no account of being a good parent. We haven’t left space for the nurturing parents who are expected to provide what children need. As a result, many families in the western world just don’t work.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
Something will have to change. With luck, people in the future will only have children if they really want them. That should mean parenthood is seen as a much more positive promise than it is now, that parents are socially supported, and are admired for doing a good job.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
The problem is that in the last generation or so we’ve come to assume that women should want and be able to do everything that by tradition men have done at the same time as pretty well everything that by tradition women have done. And it’s just not possible. Since adopting a male life style is demonstrably only another form of submission(顺从), quite a number of highly educated and economically privileged(优越的)women are now choosing to take career breaks so as to be at home with their children for longer than that poor 18 weeks.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
The most welcoming trend in parenting is that men are participating more and more, even that is not free of conflict, however. Intellectually(理智上), women want men to be equal parents and do their share. But there’s often a contradictory(矛盾的)emotion because children are the last fort of the female power in the family. “I want him to help me but this is my region and being better at it is one of the new things I’ve got as a female.” In truth,

专题 七 │ 专题预测
although they haven’t had generations of practice, there’s no reason why men can’t raise children as well as women. Men left to cope after bereavement or divorce, as well as some who take on the role of principal career within a partnership, are already doing it.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )1.Why is it more difficult today to be good parents?
A.Because parents don’t want to face the pressure of rearing children.
B.Because children are independent and don’t need to be taken care of.
C.Because husbands and wives have little time to talk to each other.
D.Because people want to fulfill their own dreams, leaving no time to look after children.

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )2.We can learn from the passage that ________.
A.people in future will not be as interested in children as people at present
B.parenthood will be considered as a positive commitment as it is now
C.women do better in rearing children than men
D.parents will receive admiration for taking good care of children

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )3.Nowadays, a lot of highly educated and economically privileged women________.
A.tend to stay at home for more than 18 weeks
B.tend to adopt a male life style C.tend to quit their jobs and stay at home D.tend to be submissive wives

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )4.It seems that in parenting, women ________.
A.are contradictory in their thoughts B.demand equality between sexes C.tend to leave children to their husbands D.often quarrel with their husbands

专题 七 │ 专题预测
( )5.The underlined word “bereavement” in the para 4 probably means ________.
A.departure of his wife B.death of his wife C.return of his wife D.annoyance of his wife

专题 七 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 本文讲述了为人父母的问题,当今社 会为人父母越来越不容易,现在社会人们对做父母有何 种倾向呢?
1.D 细节理解题。根据文章第一段,作者提到了 “压力重重的现代社会”、“做个实现自己抱负的人” 和“我们没有为父母留下教育孩子的空间”,这些都解 释了为什么现在做个好父母比以往任何时候都要艰难。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
2.D 细节理解题。根据第二段最后一句“…that parents are socially supported, and are admired for doing a good job.”,可知答案为D。第二段第二 句“With luck, people in the future will only have children if they really want them.”,但不 能由此推出A;B与本段第三句“That should mean parenthood is seen as a much more positive promise…”不符;由最后一段倒数第二句“In truth, although they haven’t had generations of practice,…”可看出C错。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
3.A 细节理解题。第三段第三句“事实上,由 于选择男性的生存方式可以说是另一形式的男尊女卑, 许多受过高等教育以及经济地位优越的妇女都情愿有 一段职业间隙,这样和孩子一起呆的时间就能长一点, 而不仅是那可怜的18周产假。”B和原文“由于选择男 性的生存方式可以说是另……”相反;C错在quit上, 注意文中breaks(间歇)的意思。职业女性正是不愿意 男尊女卑才情愿在家呆段时间,所以D也错。

专题 七 │ 专题预测
4.A 推理判断题。根据第四段 “Intellectually(理智上), women want men to be equal parents and do their share. But there’s often a contradictory(矛盾的)emotion…”可看出答 案。B只是原文的部分内容;C、D文中未提及。
5.B 词义猜测题。最后一段最后一句提到两种需 要男人独立承担照顾孩子的情况,一是离婚,那么根据 常识另一种应该是丧偶。

专题 八 │科普知识类
专题八 科普知识类

专题 八 │ 专题导读
专题导读
科普类文章是高考阅读理解中的难点题材,其取材 密切联系当前经济和科技等方面的变化,以介绍某一科 学现象居多。科普类文章具有结构严谨,逻辑性强等特 点。其主要命题形式有事实细节题、词义猜测题、推理 判断题以及主旨概括题等,其中推理判断题居多。从词 汇角度来看,在科普类文章中,词汇的意义比较专一、 稳定、简明、不带感情色彩,具有单一性和准确性的特 点。从语法和句子结构方面看,句子结构较复杂,长难 句较多,语法分析较困难。文章中常用被动语态、定语

专题 八 │ 专题导读
从句等。科普文常用的修辞手段有:(1)下定义:有时为 了突出事物的主要内容或主要问题,往往用简明扼要的话 给对象一个说法,使读者对被说明的对象有明确的概念。 (2)举事例:举出有代表性的恰当的例子,能够反映一般 的情况,真切地说明事物的特征。(3)做比较:选择有外 部或内部联系的事物进行比较,往往能增强说明事物的效 果。(4)打比方:适当运用比喻,能够增强说明的形象性

专题 八 │ 专题导读
和生动性。科普说明文在结构上常采用写作方法有:(1) 总分式。在说明事物或事理时,段落(层次)之间有一个总 分关系,表现为由总到分、由分到总。(2)承接式。各层 之间按照事物的发展过程,或者按时间、因果、条件等关 系安排,前后相互承接。(3)递进式。后边在前边的基础 上进一步说明,各层之间的关系是由浅入深。文章的命题 除了遵循科普阅读的命题方式外,还经常考查文章的篇章 结构和修辞手法。

专题 八 │ 真题再现
真题再现
[2019·山东] Batteries can power anything from small sensors to large systems. While scientists are finding ways to make them smaller but even more powerful, problems can arise when these batteries are much larger and heavier than the devices themselves. University of Missouri(MU) researchers are developing a nuclear energy source that is smaller, lighter and more efficient.

专题 八 │ 真题再现
“To provide enough power,we need certain methods with high energy density (密度),”said Jae Kwon,assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at MU. “The radioisotope (放射性同位 素)battery can provide power density that is much higher than chemical batteries.”
Kwon and his research team have been working on building a small nuclear battery,presently the size and thickness of a penny,intended to power various micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS).Although nuclear batteries can cause concerns,Kwon said they are safe.

专题 八 │ 真题再现
“People hear the word ‘nuclear’and think of something very dangerous,”he said. “However,nuclear power sources have already been safely powering a variety of devices,such as pace?makers,space satellites and underwater systems.”
His new idea is not only in the battery’s size,but also in its semiconductor(半导 体).Kwon’s battery uses a liquid semiconductor rather than a solid semiconductor.

专题 八 │ 真题再现
“The key part of using a radioactive battery is that when you harvest the energy,part of the radiation energy can damage the lattice structure(晶格结构) of the solid semiconductor,”Kwon said.“By using a liquid semiconductor,we believe we can minimize that problem.”

专题 八 │ 真题再现
Together with J. David Robertson,chemistry professor and associate director of the MU Research Reactor,Kwon is working to build and test the battery. In the future,they hope to increase the battery’s power,shrink its size and try with various other materials. Kwon said that the battery could be thinner than the thickness of human hair.

专题 八 │ 真题再现
( )1.Which of the following is true of Jae Kwon?
A.He teaches chemistry at MU. B.He developed a chemical battery. C.He is working on a nuclear energy source. D.He made a breakthrough in computer engineering.

专题 八 │ 真题再现
( )2.Jae Kwon gave examples in Paragraph 4 ________.
A.to show chemical batteries are widely applied B.to introduce nuclear batteries can be safely used C.to describe a nuclear?powered system D.to introduce various energy sources

专题 八 │ 真题再现
( )3.Liquid semiconductor is used to________.
A.get rid of the radioactive waste B.test the power of nuclear batteries C.decrease the size of nuclear batteries D.reduce the damage to lattice structure

专题 八 │ 真题再现
( )4.According to Jae Kwon, his nuclear battery________.
A.uses a solid semiconductor B.will soon replace the present ones C.could be extremely thin D.has passed the final test

专题 八 │ 真题再现
( )5.The text is most probably a________. A.science news report B.book review C.newspaper ad D.science fiction story

专题 八 │ 真题再现
【文章大意】 本文属于科普类文章。主要介绍一种 体积更小、能量更大、优点更多的新能源电池的开发。
1.C 细节理解题。根据文章第二段“Jae Kwon, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at MU.”排除A项;参照第二段“The radioisotope(放射性同位素) battery can provide power density that is much higher than chemical batteries.”排除B项;文章无D项内容。参照第三段内容 可推测C项正确。

专题 八 │ 真题再现
2.B 推理判断题。根据文章第四段可知,Kwon 举例的目的是为了说明核电池是安全的,所以B项正确。
3.D 细节理解题。判断参照第六段“The key part…damage…By using a liquid semiconductor, we believe we can minimize that problem.” 可知 D项正确。

专题 八 │ 真题再现
4.C 推理判断题、根据文章最后一句话“Kwon said that the battery could be thinner than the thickness of human hair.”可以判断 C项正确。
5.A 推理判断题。本文讲述了核电池的有关情况, 文章体裁应属于科普文章,所以A项正确。

专题 八 │ 专题预测
专题预测
(一) It’s hardly surprising that weather is a favorite topic for so many people around the world — it affects where we choose to live, what we wear, our moods, and perhaps even our national features. A sunny day can lessen the deepest sadness, while very bad weather can destroy homes and threaten lives.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
The human race has always tried to guess the weather, especially in areas of the world where there are many changes. Two popular traditional ways of predicting weather use pine cones (松果) and seaweed. When the air has a high level of humidity (湿度) there is a higher chance of rain. When the humidity is low, there is more chance of fine weather. Pine cones and seaweed react to changes in humidity—pine cones open and seaweed feels dry when the humidity is low, while high humidity has the opposite effect.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
Today’s methods of prediction increasingly depend on technology. Satellites, balloons, ships, aircraft and weather centers with monitoring equipment, send data to computers. The data is then processed, and the weather is predicted. However, even this system cannot predict weather for longer than about a week.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
A recent study by an Australian scientist suggests that certain people may have a special gift for predicting weather. However, it is possible that these people could use their talent in another way, since the same group had a lot of success in predicting changes in another system— the stock market (股市).

专题 八 │ 专题预测
It appears that a study of weather may also enable scientists to predict the sudden start of a disease. An Ebola epidemic (a kind of disease) in Uganda in the year 2000 came after the same rare weather conditions that had been present before a sudden spread of the disease 6 years earlier. Efforts to limit the spread of airborne diseases such as foot and mouth are also strongly dependent on favorable wind conditions.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )1.Paragraph 1 is written mainly to tell us________.
A.why weather is many people’s favorite topic
B.the relationship between weather and moods
C.different weather conditions around the world
D.the effect of very bad weather

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )2.We can conclude from the passage that ________.
A.many people don’t think weather has anything to do with moods
B.it is easier to predict good weather than bad weather
C.measuring humidity is a new technique to predict weather changes
D.when pine cones close, it means that it’s likely to rain

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )3.Which of the following is a traditional way of predicting weather?
A.Using satellites and balloons. B.Using seaweed. C.Using ships and aircraft. D.Using monitoring equipment.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )4.It is implied in the passage that________.
A.some diseases can be deadly in bad weather
B.the Ebola epidemic happened more than twice in Uganda
C.it’s possible to predict the outbreak of some diseases by studying the weather
D.the Ebola epidemic won’t spread again with the development of science

专题 八 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 天气对人类的影响巨大,它是人们最 喜欢的一个话题。随着科技的发展,人类能够越来越准 确地预测天气。
1.A 作者意图题。第一段第一句为本段的主题句, 下文用来解释天气是人们最喜欢的话题的原因,故答案 为A。
2.D 推理判断题。根据第二段When the air has a high level of humidity(湿度)…和…pine cones open and seaweed feels dry when the humidity is low…可推断,松果关闭时,空气湿度高,可能会下雨, 故答案为D。

专题 八 │ 专题预测
3.B 细节理解题。根据第三段Today’s methods of prediction increasingly depend on technology…可知,A、C、D三项均为现在预测天气的 科技设备;根据第二段内容可知,观察seaweed属于传 统的预测天气的方法,故答案为B。
4.C 推理判断题。根据末段It appears that a study of weather may also enable scientists to predict the sudden start of a disease.可推断,答 案为C。

专题 八 │ 专题预测
(二) “Get your hands off me, I have been stolen,” the laptop, a portable computer, shouted. That is a new solution to laptop computer theft: a program that lets owners give their property a voice when it has been taken. The program allows users to display alerts on the missing computer’s screen and even to set a spoken message. Tracking software for stolen laptops has been on the market for some time, but this is thought to be the first that allows owners to give the thief a piece of their mind.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
Owners must report their laptop missing by visiting a website, which sends a message to the model: a red and yellow “lost or stolen” sign appears on its screen when it is started. Under the latest version(版本)of the software, users can also send a spoken message.
“The message can be set to reappear every 30 seconds, no matter how many times the thief closes it. One customer sent a message saying, ‘You are being tracked. I am right at your door’,” said Carrie Hafeman, chief executive of the company which produces the program, Retriever.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
In the latest version, people can add a spoken message. For example, the laptop’s speakers will say: “Help, this laptop is reported lost or stolen. If you are not my owner, report me now.”
The Retriever software package, which costs $29.95 but has a free trial period, has the functions of many security software programs. Owners can remotely switch to an alternative password if they fear that the thief has also got hold of the access details.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
If a thief accesses the internet with the stolen laptop, Retriever will collect information on the internet service provider in use, so that the police can be alerted to its location.
Thousands of laptops are stolen every year from homes and offices, but with the use of laptops increasing, the number stolen while their owners are out has been rising sharply.
Other security software allows users to erase data remotely or lock down the computer.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )1.The expression “to_give_the_thief _a_piece_of_their_mind” can be understood as “________”.
A.to give the thief an alert mind B.to express the owners’ anger to the thief C.to remind the thief of this conscience D.to make the thief give up his mind

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )2.Different from other security software, Retriever can________.
A.record the stealing process B.help recognize the lost laptop C.lock down the computer remotely D.send a spoken message

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )3.One function of the program is that it allows the owner to ________ at a distance.
A.change some access details for switching on the laptop
B.turn on the laptop by using the original password
C.operate the laptop by means of an alternative password
D.erase the information kept in the stolen laptop

专题 八 │ 专题预测
( )4.Which of the following can best summarize the main idea of the passage?
A.With no Retriever, thousands of laptops are stolen every year.
B.A new software provides a means to reduce laptop theft.
C.Retriever has helped to find thieves and lost computers.
D.A new program offers a communication platform with the thief.

专题 八 │ 专题预测
【文章大意】 介绍了一种新开发的程序,可以用 来追踪自己丢失的笔记本电脑,而且介绍了程序的使用 方法。
1.B 句意理解题。抓住短语中的their(their指 的是电脑被偷的人),再结合文中前面的描述我们可以 断定该短语的意思是to express the owners’ anger to the thief。
2.D 细节理解题。由第三段最后一句:Under the latest version(版本)of the software, users can also send a spoken message.可知。

专题 八 │ 专题预测
3.A 推理判断题。第六段第二句话:Owners can remotely switch to an alternative password if they fear that the thief has also got hold of the access details.告诉我们失主可以远程改变一些 登陆电脑的信息,如密码等。
4.B 主旨大意题。文章主要给读者介绍了一种新 型的程序,改程序可以降低电脑的失窃率。同时还介绍 了该程序的工作原理。

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