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2020高考英语新创新一轮复习语法第二部分第四讲非谓语动词学案北师大版


第四讲非谓语动词
动词不定式
[全析考法] Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅰ)You don't have to run fast or for long________ (see) the benefit. 解析:to see 此处意为:你不必跑很快或很久就能看到它的好处。分析句子结构可知, 此处应该使用不定式形式作目的状语。 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)The government encourages farmers to grow corn instead of rice ______ (improve) water quality. 解析:to improve 根据“改善水质”是“政府鼓励农民种植玉米而不种植水稻”的目 的,可知此处应用动词不定式作目的状语。 3.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)Once his message was delivered, he allowed me ________ (stay) and watch. 解析:to stay allow sb.to do sth.为固定搭配,意为“允许某人做某事”。 4.(2018·6 月浙江高考)While regularly eating out seems to ________ (become) common for many young people in recent years, it's not without a cost. 解析:have become 根据后面的时间状语 in recent years 可知,此处应该用动词不 定式的完成时。 5.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)They are required ________ (process) the food that we eat, to recover from injury and for several other bodily functions. 解析:to process require sb.to do sth.为固定搭配,意为“需要某人做某事”。 6.(2016·四川高考)For 25 days, she never left her baby, not even to find something ________ (eat)! 解析:to eat 句意:25 天中,她寸步不离她的孩子,甚至不去找东西吃!不定式 to eat 作定语,修饰前面的不定代词 something。 7.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ)When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ________ (cool) the house during the hot day; at the same time, they warm up again for the night. 解析:to cool “be+形容词+enough+to do sth.”为固定结构,意为“足够……, 能够做某事”。

8.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ)I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused ________ (stop) until we reached the next stop.
解析:to stop refuse 后接动词作宾语时,要用其不定式形式,即 refuse to do sth. “拒绝做某事”。
Ⅱ.单句改错 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅱ)As a kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not let me.________________ 解析:watching→watch ask to do sth.意为“请求做某事”,是固定结构。 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity; others were nervous and anxious.________________ 解析:take 前加 to be eager to do sth.表示“渴望做某事”,是固定结构。 3.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ)When summer comes, they will invite their students pick the fresh vegetables!________________ 解析:pick 前加 to invite sb. to do sth.意为“邀请某人做某事”,是固定结构。 4.(2016·6 月浙江高考)He would ask who we were and pretend not to knowing us.________________ 解析:knowing→know pretend 后面接不定式作宾语,这里是否定式 pretend not to do sth.“假装不做某事”。故 knowing 改成 know。 5.(2015·四川高考)It's been a month since I came to this new school and I really want share with you some of the problems I have been experiencing.________________ 解析:want 后加 to want 后跟动词不定式作宾语,want to do sth.意为“想要做某 事”。 6.(2015·浙江高考)The position of the classroom with its view made me felt like I was dreaming.________________ 解析:felt→feel make 后面跟不带 to 的动词不定式作宾补,即 make sb. do sth., 表示“使某人做某事”,所以此处应将 felt 改为 feel。
[谨记规则] 不定式由“to+动词原形”构成,其否定形式是“not to+动词原形”。不定式可以加 宾语或状语构成不定式短语,它没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。
(一)不定式的用法 1.作主语 (1)不定式短语作主语时,往往放在谓语之后,用 it 作形式主语。

To see is to believe.眼见为实。

It is right to give up smoking.戒烟是正确的。

(2)在“It is/was+adj.+for/of sb. to do sth.”结构中,若形容词侧重于评价人

物的特性、特征,则构成不定式复合结构的介词应用 of,此时形容词常为 kind, nice,

foolish 等词,且 sb.与形容词之间可构成逻辑上的系表关系;若形容词侧重于描写不定式

动作的特征、特点,则构成不定式复合结构的介词应用 for。

It is generous of him to contribute so much.

他捐献了这么多真是太慷慨了。

It was important for us to live a low?carbon life.

过一种低碳生活对我们来说很重要。

2.作宾语

(1)下列动词只能用不定式作宾语,请牢记下面的口诀:

decide/determine, learn, want, 决心学会想希望,拒绝设法愿假装
expect/hope/wish; refuse, manage, care, pretend

主动答应选计划,同意请求帮一帮

offer, promise, choose, plan; agree, ask/beg, help

We agreed to meet at the school gate.

我们一致同意在校门口见面。

(2)在某些动词如 find, think, consider, feel, make, believe 后,常用 it 作形式

宾语,然后加宾语补足语,最后加不定式作真正的宾语。

We think it our duty to protect the environment.

我们认为保护环境是我们的责任。

3.作表语

不定式作表语多表示某一次具体的、特定的或有待实现的动作。

My dream is to enter Peking University.

我的梦想是考入北京大学。

4.作宾语补足语

(1)在很多动词后都可以用不定式作宾语补足语,如 ask, want, invite, get, force,

expect, allow, persuade, order, warn, remind, prefer, cause, permit, forbid, advise,

teach 等。

Father will not allow us to play in the street.

父亲不会允许我们在街上玩耍。

(2)下列动词(短语)接省略 to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语:

一感 (feel),二听(hear, listen to),三使(let,have, make),五看 (see, notice,

observe, watch, look at),半帮助 (help),但在变为被动语态时需加 to。 Nobody saw him come in. (主动语态) 没人看见他进来。 The thief was observed to enter the bank. (被动语态) 有人看见小偷进了银行。 5.作定语 (1)不定式作定语表示将来的动作。 I have a lot of work to do.我有许多工作要做。 (2)不定式常放在某些名词或代词后作定语。 如果作定语的不定式是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地
点、工具等,不定式后需要加相应的介词。 I need a pen to write with.我需要一支钢笔写字。 [特别注意] 如果被不定式修饰的名词为 place, time, way 等,不定式后的介词习惯
上可以省去。 (3)不定式用来修饰被序数词、最高级或 no, all, any 等限定的中心词,且与中心词为
逻辑上的主动关系。 He is always the first to arrive at the school and the last to leave the school.
他总是第一个到校,最后一个离校。 (4)被修饰词是抽象名词时,常用不定式作定语。常见的该类名词有:ability, chance,
idea, hope, wish, fact, excuse, promise, attempt, way 等。 The ability to express an idea is as important as the idea itself.表达观点的
能力与观点本身同等重要。 [特别注意] 不定式作定语时,若句子主语是不定式动作的执行者,则用主动形式表被
动含义;若句子主语不是不定式动作的执行者,则用被动形式表被动含义。 She has a sister to look after. 她有一个妹妹要照顾。(she 是 look after 的执行者) 6.作状语 (1)作目的状语。表示“为了”,可以单独放在句首、句中或句末。如果强调目的性,不
定式前也可加 in order 或 so as,但 so as to 不能置于句首。 To increase levels of community service, some schools have launched compulsory
volunteer programs. 为了提高社区服务水平,一些学校已经发起了义务志愿者服务计划。 (2)作结果状语。不定式作结果状语常表示令人意外的结果,有时前面加 only,以加强
语气。常用于下列结构中:

only to do

表示意想不到的结果

enough to do

足够做……

too ... to do

太……而不能……

so/such ... as to ...

如此……以至于……

Tom took a taxi to the airport, only to find his plane high up in the sky.

汤姆乘出租车去了机场,结果发现他要乘坐的飞机已飞入高空。

He is old enough to go to school.他到上学的年龄了。

(3)作原因状语。表示喜、怒、哀、乐等的形容词作表语时,后可接不定式作原因状语,

用以说明产生这种心理活动或情绪的原因,常用于这类结构的形容词有 sorry, surprised,

disappointed, excited, glad, happy, anxious, delighted, pleased, foolish 等。

Maggie was glad to be home in her own bed.

玛吉回到家躺在自己的床上,觉得非常高兴。

(二)动词不定式的时态和语态

1.动词不定式的时态和语态的构成和用法

形式

意义

主动语态

被动语态

与句子谓语动词的动作同

一般式

时发生或在谓语动词的动

to do

to be done

作之后发生

在谓语动词的动作发生时

to be

进行式



正在进行

doing

完成式

在谓语动词的动作之前发 生

to have done

to have been done

发生在谓语动词的动作之

to have

完成进行式 前并且持续到谓语动词的



been doing

动作发生时仍在进行

I saw him go out.我看见他出去了。

The boy pretended to be studying hard when his teacher came in.当老师进来的

时候,那个男孩假装正在努力学习。

I'm sorry to have kept you waiting.很抱歉让你久等了。

The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.

明天要举行的会议很重要。

2.动词不定式语态四注意

(1)不定式修饰的名词或代词和不定式之间构成逻辑上的主谓关系时,不定式往往用主

动形式。

Have you got a key to unlock the door? 你有开门的钥匙吗? (2)不定式和它前面被修饰的名词或代词之间构成逻辑上的动宾关系,又和该句主语之 间构成逻辑上的主谓关系时,不定式常用主动形式。 He needs a room to live in.他需要一间房间居住。 (3)不定式作表语(性质)形容词的状语,和句中主语之间构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不 定式多用主动形式,这是因为人们往往认为形容词后省去了 for sb.。 This machine is very easy to operate. Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. 这台机器很容易操作。只需几分钟,任何人都能学会使用它。 The book is very hard to understand.这本书很难理解。 (4)在 there be 结构中,当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形 式;如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须完成,则用被动形式。 There is a lot of work to do. (有人必须去干活) There is a lot of work to be done. (工作必须被做) 请注意下面两个句子的含义是不同的: There is nothing to do. (无事可做,感到十分乏味) There is nothing to be done. (某东西坏了,无法使之恢复正常)
动名词
[全析考法] Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅰ)You may drink, smoke, be overweight and still reduce your risk of ________ (die) early by running. 解析:dying 此处作介词 of 的宾语,且后有副词 early 作状语,故填动词 die 的动名 词形式 dying。 2.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)I quickly lower myself, ducking my head to avoid ________ (look) directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel challenged. 解析:looking avoid 后接动名词形式作宾语,故填 looking。 3.(2018·6 月浙江高考)I still remember ________ (visit) a friend who'd lived here for five years and I was shocked when I learnt she hadn't cooked once in all that time. 解析:visiting remember doing sth.“记得做过某事”,为固定搭配。 4.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ)Fast food is full of fat and salt; by ________ (eat) more

fast food people will get more salt and fat than they need in their diet. 解析:eating by 在此处表示“通过”,是介词,后面接动名词形式作宾语。 5.(2017·全国卷Ⅲ)But unlike her school friends, 16?year?old Sarah is not
spending half?term ________ (rest). 解析:resting spend time (in) doing sth.为固定搭配。 6.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ)Still, the boy kept ________ (ride). 解析:riding keep 后接动名词作宾语,keep doing sth.意为“继续做某事”。 Ⅱ.单句改错 1.(2018·全国卷Ⅰ)My grandpa said last summer they earned quite a lot by sell
the fish.________________ 解析:sell→selling 动词 sell 在介词 by 后作宾语,故使用其动名词形式。 2 . (2016· 全 国 卷 Ⅱ )We can choose between staying at home and take a
trip.________________ 解析:take→taking 此处为 between ... and ... 结构,根据前面的“staying at
home”可知,此处也要用动名词形式,与前面保持一致。 3 . (2016· 全 国 卷 Ⅲ )I showed them I was independent by wear strange
clothes.________________ 解析:wear→wearing 此处用动名词作介词 by 的宾语。
[谨记规则] 动名词是由动词?ing 形式构成的,它在句中起名词作用。
(一)动名词的句法功能 1.作主语 动名词短语作主语时,有时用 it 作形式主语。 Hearing how others react to the book you have just read creates an added pleasure. 听别人对你刚读过的这本书的反应会带来额外的乐趣。 It is worth making an appointment before you go. 去之前预约一下是值得的。 [知识拓展] 下面句型中常用动名词作主语: It is/was a waste (of ...)/no use/no good doing sth. 2.作表语 动名词作表语表示通常的情况,多指抽象的、经常性的动作,句子主语通常是无生命的 事物或由 what 引导的名词性从句。

My job is teaching you English.我的工作是教你们英语。 3.作宾语 (1)下列动词(短语)只能用动名词作宾语,请牢记下面的口诀:
consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, 考虑建议盼原谅,承认推迟没得想
excuse/pardon; admit, delay/put off, fancy avoid, miss, keep/keep on, practice; deny, 避免错过继续练,否认完成就欣赏 finish, enjoy/appreciate forbid, imagine, risk; can't help (禁不住), 禁止想象才冒险,不禁介意准逃亡 mind, allow/permit, escape
He tried to avoid answering my questions. 他试图对我的问题避而不答。 (2)由“动词+介词”构成的短语,其后跟动名词作宾语,常见的有 be/get used to (习 惯于), look forward to (期盼), feel like (想要), insist on (坚持), get down to (开 始认真做某事), devote ... to ... (致力于……), object to (反对), stick to (坚持), give up (放弃)等。 It's time I got down to thinking about that essay. 我该认真思考一下那篇论文了。 (3)下列动词或词组既可以接动名词作宾语,也可以接不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别: ??mean to do sth.打算做某事
?
??mean doing sth.意味着做某事 ??forget to do sth.忘记去做某事(未做)
?
??forget doing sth.忘记做过某事(已做) ??regret to do sth.对即将做的事表示遗憾(未做)
?
??regret doing sth.对做过的事表示遗憾/后悔(已做) ??try to do sth.尽力去做某事
?
??try doing sth.试着做某事 ??go on to do sth.继续做另外一件事
?
??go on doing sth.继续做原来做的事 ??remember to do sth.记着去做某事(未做)
?
??remember doing sth.记得做过某事(已做) 4.作定语 (1)动名词可置于名词前作定语,表示被修饰的名词的用途、性能或目的。

a walking stick=a stick for walking 手杖 a sleeping car=a car for sleeping 卧铺车 (2)表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可以表示经常性 的动作或状态。 John is a promising young man. 约翰是一个有前途的年轻人。

(二)动名词的时态和语态

形式

意义

主动语态

一般式 与谓语动词的动作同时或稍后发生

doing

完成式

先于谓语动词的动作完成

having done

被动语态 being done having been done

Do you like playing chess?你喜欢下棋吗? She was pleased that the teacher wasn't angry with her for her having been so rude. 她很高兴老师没有因为她的无礼而生气。

分词

[全析考法] 单句语法填空/单句改错 1 . (2018· 全 国 卷 Ⅱ )China's approach to protecting its environment while ________ (feed) its citizens “offers useful lessons for agriculture and food policymakers worldwide,” says the bank's Juergen Voegele. 解析:feeding when/while+现在分词短语作时间状语,相当于 when/while 引导的 时间状语从句,同时名词 China 和动词 feed 之间构成逻辑上的主谓关系,故填 feeding。 2.(2018·11 月浙江高考)Larger amounts of caffeine can cause a problem ________ (call) caffeinism. You get very nervous and you can't sleep. 解析:called problem 与 call 之间是逻辑上的动宾关系,应用过去分词 called 作定 语。 3.(2016·全国卷Ⅰ)But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid?1980s, when I was the first Western TV reporter ________ (permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild. 解析:permitted 因为句中已有谓语动词 was,故此处要用非谓语动词形式。因 permit

与 reporter 之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,所以用过去分词形式作后置定语。 4 . (2016· 全 国 卷 Ⅲ )The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand
years.People probably cooked their food in large pots,________ (use) twigs (树 枝) to remove it.
解析:using 第二句句中已有谓语 cooked,且无其他连接词,use 与主语 People 之间 为主谓关系,故填现在分词形式作方式状语。
5.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ)Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ________ (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
解析: living 句中已有谓语动词 arranges,故此处应考虑填非谓语动词。由于 live 与其所修饰的名词 people 之间为逻辑上的主谓关系,故用表示主动意义的现在分词形式。
6.(2018·全国卷Ⅲ)Everyone was silent, wait to see who would be called upon to read his or her paragraph aloud.________________
解析:wait→waiting 分析句子结构可知,was 为谓语动词,主语 Everyone 与 wait 之间为主谓关系,故应用现在分词 waiting 作状语,表示伴随。

[谨记规则] 分词包括现在分词和过去分词,现在分词表示的动作与句子主语是逻辑上的主谓关系, 且含有进行的意义;过去分词表示的动作与句子主语为逻辑上的动宾关系,且含有完成的意 义。

(一)分词的句法功能

1.作状语

分词作状语时,其逻辑主语是句子的主语,一般在句中作时间、原因、结果、方式、条

件、伴随、让步等状语。

分词作状语

用法

作时间状语

相当于 when, while, before 等引导的时间状语从句。

作原因状语

相当于 because, since, as 引导的原因状语从句。

作条件状语

相当于 if, unless 等引导的条件状语从句。

作结果状语

常用现在分词表示自然而然的结果。

作方式或伴

表示一个与谓语动作同时发生的次要的(或者伴随的)动作,常

随状语

用逗号与句子主体部分隔开。

作让步状语

相当于 though, although, even if 等引导的让步状语从句。

Translated into English, the sentence was found to have an entirely different

word order.这个句子被译成英语后,发现它有一个完全不同的语序。(作时间状语)

Not knowing (=Because he didn't know) how much longer he could last, Nicholas

did the only thing he could — he huddled in his cave and slept.

因为不知道还能维持(生存)多久,尼古拉斯只能做一件事——蜷缩在他的山洞里睡觉。

(作原因状语)

Used (=If it is used) with care, one tin will last for six weeks.如果小心使

用,一罐可以用六个星期。(作条件状语)

More highways have been built in China, making it much easier for people to travel

from one place to another.

中国已经建成更多的高速公路,这让人们的出行变得更容易。(作结果状语)

2.作表语

表示事物的特征或性质时,表语用现在分词;表示人或物的内心感受时,表语用过去分

词。

Please describe a dog that is frightening.

请描述一只令人害怕的狗。

Please describe a dog that is frightened.

请描述一只惊恐的狗。

3.作定语

(1)作定语的及物动词的分词形式为 doing, being done 和 done。当被修饰的名词与分

词之间为主动关系时,用 doing;当被修饰的名词与分词之间为被动关系且表示分词动作正

在进行时,用 being done;当被修饰的名词与分词之间为被动关系且表示分词动作已完成

时,用 done。

I have never seen a more moving film.

我没看过比这个更令人感动的电影了。

The houses being built are for the teachers.

正在建的房子是给老师的。

The broken glass is Tom's.这个打破了的杯子是汤姆的。

(2)作定语的不及物动词的分词形式为 doing 和 done, doing 表示正在进行;done 表示

已经完成。

boiling water 正沸腾的水

boiled water 开水

4.作宾语补足语

(1)感官动词或短语 see, watch, observe, look at, listen to, notice 及 keep, find

等词可跟分词作宾语补足语。现在分词作宾语补足语时,宾语与宾语补足语之间在逻辑上是

主谓关系;过去分词作宾语补足语时,宾语与宾语补足语之间在逻辑上是动宾关系。

I saw him entering the bank. (him 与 enter 之间为逻辑上的主谓关系)

我看见他正向银行里走。

I saw him operated on. (him 与 operate 之间为逻辑上的动宾关系)

我看见(有人)给他做了手术。

(2)have, get 后可接现在分词或过去分词作宾语补足语。

They had the fire burning all night. (burn 动作一直在进行)

他们让火整夜烧着。

I will have my bike repaired tomorrow. (让别人去修)

明天我要让人修一下我的自行车。

(二)现在分词的时态和语态

形式

意义

主动语态

被动语态

一般式 与谓语动词的动作同时或稍后发生

doing

being done

完成式

先于谓语动词的动作完成

having done having been done

Having finished his homework, he went to bed.

完成作业后,他上床睡觉了。

The meeting being held now is of great importance.

现在正在开的会很重要。

(三)独立主格结构

独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在。在句中一般作状语,表示时

间、条件、原因、伴随状况等,也可以作定语。

1.名词/代词(主格)+非谓语动词

Weather permitting, we shall play the match tomorrow. (permit 的逻辑主语是

weather 而非 we)

明天如果天气允许,我们就进行比赛。

He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. (fix

的逻辑主语是 his eyes 而非 he)

他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。

Many trees to be planted, our newly?built school will look even more beautiful.

(plant 的逻辑主语是 many trees 而非 our newly?built school)

种上许多的树后,我们新建的学校看上去将更美。

2.名词/代词(主格)+名词/形容词/副词/介词短语

The students were having a discussion, their faces (being) red with excitement.

学生们正在进行讨论,因为激动,他们的脸都红了。

The boy came in, book in hand.

男孩走进来,手里拿着书。 [特别注意] 为使句子简洁、明快,独立主格结构中的冠词或代词也常省略。 (四)with/without+宾语(名词/代词)+宾语补足语 “with/without+宾语+宾语补足语”结构在句中常作伴随状语和原因状语。 1.“with/without+名词/代词+现在分词”中的现在分词表主动且进行,或表特征。 The old couple often take a walk after supper in the park, with their pet dog following them. 这对老夫妇经常晚饭后在公园散步,他们的宠物狗跟在后面。 2.“with/without+名词/代词+过去分词”中的过去分词表被动且完成,或表状态。 It was a pity that the great writer died with his works unfinished.真可惜, 这位伟大的作家去世时,他的作品尚未完成。 3.“with/without+名词/代词+动词不定式”中的不定式表将来。 With the exception of using a small microwave oven to heat food, students are not permitted to cook in their rooms. 除了可以使用小型微波炉加热食物之外,学生们被禁止在他们的房间里做饭。 4.“with/without+名词/代词+形容词/副词/名词/介词短语”中的形容词等表宾语的 性质或状态。 With production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.产量提 高了 60%,公司又度过了辉煌的一年。
语法填空解题“3 策略” 1.分析非谓语动词发生的时间以及非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系 (1)若非谓语动词与逻辑主语之间是主谓关系, 且正在进行,要想到用现在分词形式 (doing); (2)若非谓语动词与逻辑主语之间是动宾关系,且表完成, 要想到用过去分词形式 (done); (3)若非谓语动词表将来的动作,或作目的状语,或跟在表示喜怒哀乐的形容词后表示 原因或意料之外的结果等, 要想到用不定式形式(to do)。 2.掌握非谓语动词的固定句式结构 (1)It's+形容词+(for/of sb.+)to do sth.; (2)It's no good/use/pleasure doing sth.; (3)find/think/believe/consider+it+adj.+to do sth.; (4)be likely to do sth.很可能做某事。

3.牢记后跟非谓语动词的特定动词 (1)牢记用动名词或不定式作宾语的动词; (2)牢记用动词不定式或分词作补足语的动词。
据第 1 条解题 1.According to the study, when faced (face) with the new challenges, fast walkers are more likely to be active while quiet people tend to walk more slowly. 2.The hobby selected (select) by teens depends upon their free time. 3.Last summer I was lucky to_spend_ (spend) a couple of days in this city and I just fell in love with its narrow paved streets and neat beautiful house! 4.When his father discovered his son practising on a violin one day, he gave him a beating, saying (say) that he was going to beat the music out of the boy.
据第 2 条解题 5.It is common _to_find (find) this type of poetry, calligraphy art, hanging in people's homes. 6.People with positive attitude are more likely _to_succeed (succeed) than those with negative attitude. 7.Everyone in our class is working hard and doing what we could to_enter (enter) a good university.
据第 3 条解题 8.Last year, scientists saw some monkeys rubbing (rub) themselves with a certain kind of insects to_protect (protect) themselves from fierce mosquitoes biting. 9.The Old Town is definitely worthy _to_be_seen (see). 10.So, what kinds of food do you avoid eating (eat)? 短文改错解题“2 视角” 1.从非谓语动词构成角度检查 (1)检查是否该有不定式符号 to; (2)检查动名词或分词是否正确。 2.从非谓语动词用法角度检查 (1)检查介词后的非谓语动词是否正确; (2)检查并列结构中非谓语动词形式是否一致; (3)检查作主语、宾语或宾补的非谓语动词形式是否合适; (4)检查作状语的分词表示主动还是被动。

据第 1 条解题 1.In addition, communicate with our teachers and classmates is also a good way. communicate→communicating 2.Last evening he used it take his cousin out for ice cream._take 前加 to 3.He hopes create an environment for his students that is much more relaxing than the one he used to study in.hopes 后加 to
据第 2 条解题 4.After that, I swore I must learn English well, especially spoken English, and never make that embarrassing thing happening again. happening→happen 5.I'd like work for you because I care a lot about presently affairs.like 后加 to 6.To her surprise, the poor old man was sitting on the floor with the palm of his hand bleed.bleed→bleeding 7.Arrived home, I almost forgot my tiredness. Arrived→Arriving 8 . Yesterday morning I was determined to giving her a hand and do some washing.giving→give 9.Most high school students want to get into famous universities and they spend most of their time review lessons. review→reviewing 10.Learning this news, I am really willing to travel with you and introducing Xi'an to you. introducing→introduce



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